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AB.Psych_CH.1 Terms

Abnormal Psych (6th ed.) - Halgin & Whitbourne - CH.1_terms

QuestionAnswer
adoption study method of comparing genetic vs. environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the incidence of disorders in children whose biological parents have DX psychological disorders but whose rearing parents do not.
asylums place of refuge or safety; psychiatric facility; word became to have a negative connotation.
baseline the period in which a participant is observed prior to being given treatment; purpose being to document the frequency of the target behavior.
biological markers measurable characteristics or traits whose patterns parallel the inheritance of a disorder or other characteristic.
biopsychosocial a model in which the interaction of biological, psychological, & sociocultural factors is seen as influencing the development of the individual.
case study methods intensive study of a single person described in detail.
concordance rate agreement ratios between people DX as having a particular disorder & their relatives.
control group group of participants that does not receive the treatment thought to influence the behavior under study.
correlation an association, or correlation, between tow variables, that can range in value from +1.0 to -1.0
cross fostering study a method of comparing genetic vs. environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the incidence of disorders in children who are adopted by parents with psychological disorders but whose biological parents do not.
deinstitutionalization movement the process in the 1960-1970s that prompted the release of psychiatric patients into community treatment sites.
demand characteristics the expectations of participants in a experiment about what is going to happen to them or the proper way to respond.
dependent variable variable whose value is the outcome of the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable
diathesis-stress model proposal that people are born with a predisposition (or diathesis) that places them at risk for developing a psychological disorder if exposed to certain extremely stressful life experiences
dizygotic twins nonidentical or fraternal twins who are genetically alike only to the same degree as other siblings
double-blind technique experimental procedure in which neither the person giving the treatment nor the person receiving the treatment knows whether the participant is in the experimental or control group
experimental group group of participants that receives the treatment thought to influence the behavior under the study
experimental method research method that involves altering or changing the conditions to which participants are exposed (independent variable) & observing the effects of this manipulation on the participant's behavior (dependent variable)
genetic mapping the attempt by biological researchers to identify the structure of a gene & the characteristics it controls
hypnotism the process of inducing a trance state
hypothesis formation process the stage of research in which the researcher generates ideas about a cause-effect relationship between the behaviors under study
hysteria disorder in which psychological problems become expressed in physical form
incidence the frequency of new cases within a given time period
independent variable variable whose level is adjusted or controlled by the experimenter
medical model the view that abnormal behavior result from physical problems & should be treated medically
mental health parity a standard that would require health insurers to provide equal levels of coverage for physical & mental illnesses
mesmerized derived from the name Mesmer; process of bringing about a state of heightened suggestibility through the words & actions of a charismatic individual
monozygotic twins identical twins who share the same genetic inheritance
moral treatment the philosophy popular in the mid-19th century that people can, with proper care, develop self-control over their own disturbed behaviors
multiple baseline approach in behavioral research, the observation of different dependent variables in a person over the course of treatment, or observing the behavior as it occurs under different conditions
observation process the stage of research in which the researcher watches & records the behavior of interest
placebo condition the condition used in experimental research in which people are given an inert substance or treatment that is similar in all other ways to the experimental treatment
population the entire group of individuals sharing a particular characteristic
pragmatic case study an organized approach for the development & accumulation of case study material that focuses on practical results
prevalence the # of people who have ever had a disorder at a given time or over a specified period
probability the odds or likelihood that an event will happen
psychoanalysis a theory and system of practice that relies heavily on the concepts of the unconscious mind, inhibited sexual impulses, early development, & the use of the "free association" technique & dream analysis
psychoanalytic model an approach that seeks explanations of abnormal behavior in the workings of unconscious psychological processes
psychotherapy the treatment of abnormal behavior through psychological techniques
quasi-experimental design a design that is like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient of random assignment to groups
representativeness the extent to which a sample adequately reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn
single-subject design an experimental procedure in which one person at a time is studied in both the experimental & control conditions
stigma a label that causes certain people to be regarded as different, defective, & set apart from mainstream members of society
survey method a research tool, used to gather information from a sample of people considered representative of particular population, in which participants are asked to answer questions about the topic of concern
trephining the drilling of a hole in the skull; psychological treatment in prehistoric times
variable a dimension along which people, things, or events differ
Created by: sheaton