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Pathology- Chapter 1

the study of disease pathology
the study of the various pathological processes that cause disease etiology
sequence of events pathogenesis
changes perceived by the patient symptoms
visual abnormal changes in the patient interpreted by a physician signs
cellular changes that are not neccesarily bad lesions
all disease processes are categorized into what two groups? structural and functional disease
involves physical and biochemical changes within the cell; aka organic disease structural disease
structural changes in the cell are initiated by what two types of agents? exogenous and endogenous
list exampls of external agents trauma, chemical injuries, microbial injuries,
list examples of internal agents vascular insufficiency, immunological/autoimmune reactions and diseases, and disturbances that are the result of abnormal metablism
deficiency of blood in the muscle ischemia
an area of dead or necrotic tissue infarct
myocardial infarct ischemic necrosis
diseases in which the causes are unknown idiopathic
adverse reactions that may take place hile under the care of a physician iatrogenic
diseases acquired from a hospital environment nosocomial
any disease that presents no lesion functional or physiological disease
initial cell response that takes palce following injury degeneration
death of cells necrosis
has a sudden onset and runs a short severe course an acute injury
lack of oxygen anoxia
reduced oxygen hypoxia
hypoxia that is localized to a specific area ischemia
ischemic necrosis is aka and where is it most common? infarct; in the heart and brain
two most common causes of infarct thrombi and emboli
mass of coagulated blood or a clot, which usually adheres to a vessel thrombus
a thrombus that has the ability to travel through the venous system embolus
emboli are common after... trauma and fracture of long bones
describe liquifaction necrosis lesions containing pyogenic bacteria with foul smelling purulent debris
describe caseous necrosis cheese like appearance
describe enzymatic fat necrosis assoc with the pancreas and involves the leaking of digestive enzymes
describe gangrenous necrosis combination of coagulation necrosis and bacteria that are hosted by the necrotic tissue
progressive wasting of any part of the body, usually impairing function or resulting in loss of function atrophy
the body's response to injury inflammation
phagocytosis leukocytes engulf and digest bacteria and help remove it
List the five indications of acute inflammation that are also known as the cardinal signs red skin (hyperemia), swelling (edema), heat (the temp of skin is less that of the blood), pain (swollen tissue presses nerve endings), and loss of function (natural tendency to protect the body part)
transudate serum that passes through a membrane or tissue and is due to increase in hydrostatic or decreased osmotic pressure in the vascular system
describe transudates watery, low protein content
exudate created by decreased hydrostatic pressure and increased osmotic pressure
describe exudates cloudy, thick, protein-rich filled fluid
list the two types of repair regeneration and fibrous connective tissue
which type of repair is preferred? repair
primary purpose of connective tissue bind, support and connect tissues
these are bundles of long, slender cellls that can contract or provide movement muscle cells
List the two groups of nerve tissue cells axons and supporting cells
any type of lesion or tissue mass that is characterized by the proliferation of cells a growth disturbance
two categories of growth disturbances hyperplasias and neoplasms
an abnormal lesion that has an excessive growth as its distinguishing feature neoplasm
absolute increase in the number of cells in a tissue and is an exaggerated response to various stimuli hyperplasia
hypertrophy increase in cell size
metastasis spread of cancer cells to regional and distant body locations
hyperplasia increase in cell numbers
dysplasia abnormal development of tissue
List the four types of cancer carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma
cancer that originates in epithelial tissue carcinoma
cancer of connective tissue sarcoma
cancer of the blood leukemia
cancer of the lymphatic system lymphoma
mortality rate number of persons dying per year divided by a population smaple of 100,000
List the five leading causes of death heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular accident or stroke, trauma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
rate of occurence measured over a given period of time frequency
prevalence number of individuals with a particular disease at any point in time
Created by: kristinalyn