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Psychology Ch.2

prefrontal lobotomy surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus
heuristic mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world
representativeness heuristic heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype
base rate how common a characteristic or behavior is in the general population
availability heuristic heuristic that involves estimating the likeliness of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds
cognitive biases systematic errors in thinking
hindsight bias tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes
overconfidence tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predicions
naturalistic observation watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation
external validity extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings
internal validity extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study
case study research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period
existence proof demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur
random selection procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate
reliability consistency of measurement
validity extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure
response set tendency of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items
correlational designs research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated
illusory correlation perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists
experiment research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable
random assignment randomly sorting participants into two groups
placebo effect improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement
blind unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group
double-blind when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group
demand characteristics cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher's hypotheses
informed consent informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate
Created by: rlhaas