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Intro. to RC Pharm.

Chapter's In Rau's RC Pharmacology

Define Chemical Name The name indicating the chemical structure of a drug
Define Generic Name The name assigned by (USAN) councils when a drug has been determined to have therapeutic use.
Define Official Name When a drug is fully approved for general use by United States of Pharmacopeia; The generic becomes official name.
Define Non-Proprietary Name The other names besides "Marketed name"
Define Drug A chemical substance that can alter an organisms' function or processes.
Define Pharmacology The study of drugs(chemicals) including origin,properties, and and interactions with living organisms.
What are the two reliable sources that you can find information about drugs and therapeutic use? The United States of Pharmacopeia an The Physician Desk Reference .. also THE PHARMACOLOGICAL BASIS OF THERAPEUTICS & DRUG FACTS AND COMPARISONS.
What is a orphan drug? Designed to treat a particular disease.
What are some of the advantages of drugs delivered my oral inhalation or nasal inhalation? Aerosol doses are smaller than other used for the same purpose and given systemically; Side effects are usually fewer and less severe; Rapid onset; The drug delivery is localized;Safe convenient, and painless.
What is an Anti-infective agent? antibiotics or anti- tuberculous drugs.
What are the five major routes of drug administration? Enteral, Topical,Transdermal,Parenteral,and Inhalation.
What are the four overall factors that affect the effect of a drug in regards to the body? Absorption,Distribution, Metabolism,and Elimination.
What are the 5 barriers that a drug must pass through to reach the smooth muscle cell or gland cell? Airway mucosa, Epithelial Cells, Basement Membrane,Interstitium and Capillary Vascular Network.
If a drug is____________-soluble, it moves more readily through the " aqueous compartments of the body. Water
In order to move more readily through cell membranes, a drug must be _____- soluble. Lipid
The barriers that that a drug must penetrate will affect the drug's time of _________ and the time of __________ ____________. Onset; Peak Effect
What is the definition of a Loading Dose? To give a higher quantity of a drug, initially, to quickly achieve a therapeutic level.
Another word for Metabolism is________________. Biotransformed
Maintenance dosing means that the level of a given drug is equal to the rate of ________________. Elimination
The organ that is most involved with metabolizing drugs is the____. Liver
The primary site of drug excretion is the ________. Kidney
What is "Half- Life"? it's the measure of how rapidly a drug is eliminated in the body.
What is a Drug Receptor? Polypeptides or proteins who's shape and electric charge provide a match to a drugs corresponding chemical shape or charge.
What is an synergism? When two drugs act on a target organ by different mechanisms of action. And the effect brings a more effective outcome than working independantly.
What is tolerance? A decreased sensitivity to a drug over a long period.
What is hyper sensitivity? When a drug can cause an allergic or immune- mediated reaction that can cause ventilatory maintenance or airway assistance.
The study of drugs in called Pharmacology
The time course and disposition of a drug in the body based on absorption,metabolism, distribution and elimination, is called Pharmokinetics
The mechanism of a drug action by which a drug molecule cause its effect in the body is called( what it does to the body) Pharmacodynamics
What is Pseudomonas aeruginosa? a gram negative organism and is primarily a nosocomial organism.
What is the study of toxic substances? Toxicology
The art of treating diseases is called Therapeutics
Most drugs come from chemicals, however_________,____________, and ___________ also contain active ingredients for drugs. Plants, Minerals, and Animals
In ancient times cromium sodium was used as a muscle relaxer but nowadays it is available as a synthetic form called anti-asthmatic
One advantage of orphan drugs is... It’s good that there’s a drug available to treat rare diseases
One disadvantage of orphan drugs is.. No reasonable expectation of recovering the cost
What are the six parts of a prescription? a.) Patients name b.) the recipe c.) inscription d.)subscription e.)sigma f.)Name of prescriber
True or False: The physician must write on the prescription that it's okay to use generic form of the drug. True
What kind of drugs paralyze people and are used in critical care? Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
Name of the drugs to keep blood from clotting Anti-Coagulants or thrombolytic agents
A rapid decrease in response to a drug is called tachyphylaxis
The ratio of the dose of a drug that is toxic to 50% of test subject to the dose that provides relief to 50% of the test subjects is the potency or concentration
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent:Adrenergic Bronchodilation; Albuterol
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent:Anticholinergic Bronchodilation; Epinepherine
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Mucoactive Clearance of secrections (Mucus thinner); Mucomyst
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Corticosteroid Reduction of airway inflammation; Triamcinolone acetonide (Flovent)
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Antiasthmatic Prevent onset development; Cromolyn Sodium
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Antiinfective Elimination of infective agents; Tobramycin
State the Therapeutic Purpose and name of the Agent: Exogenous surfactants Restoring lung compliance; Calafactant
q4h every four hours
qd everyday
bid twice daily
et and
cc cubic centimeter
gtt a drop
IM intramuscular
L liter
mL millimeter
po by mouth
q every
prn as needed
nebul spray
npo nothing by mouth
qh every hour
qod every other day
q3h every three hours
qid four times daily
q2h every two hours
tid three times daily
IV intravenous
________ _____________ transport occurs by special membrane embedded carrier molecules transporting substances across membranes Carrier mediated
What is pinocytosis? When a membrane engulfs a substance in the the interior vesciles allowing trans-location.
Term used to indicate the proportion of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation is _________________. bioavailability
What does the book means when it says "narrow therapeutic index?" That there is a fine line between therapeutic effects and toxic effects.
Define antagonist blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses
Define agonist It triggers a response by a cell and most often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance.
Which of the following is the only route of administration that can't exert local effect? a) Topical b) Oral c.) Parenteral d.)Inhalation b.) Oral
What type of drug crosses the blood-brain barrier most easily? Non- ionized; Lipid soluble
When delivering a drug via inhalation what percentage of the drug is inhaled into the lungs 10%
The two major branches of the human nervous system are CNS or Peripheral Nervous System
The central Neervous System is made up of Brain and Spinal Cord
The peripheral NS is made up of____________, _____________, and _____________________ sensory neurons, somatic neurons, and the autonomic NS.
The autonomic system is named in two parts called: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic system
The autonomic system is not under our_______________ control. conscience
What is a neurotransmitter? When a neurotransmitter, or chemical agent released by a particular brain cell, travels across the synapse to act on the target cell to either inhibit or excite it
Name the two sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters norepinephrine & acetylcholine
The parasympathertic system only uses ACH
The sympathetic nervous system acts as an _____ system. alarm
Neural propagation is both a ________ and ___________ event electrical and chemical
The enzyme that brakes down ACh is called cholinesterase
Name of the test for Myasthenia gravis Tensilon
Test for Asthma methacholine challenge
Major parasympathetic nerve is called Vagas
Adrenergic receptor sites can be stimulated in two ways_________________ and ____________. Nerve fibers or chemicals distributed by blood
Norepinephrine and epinephrine (destroyed)by an enzyme called COMT
Created by: Stefgarner