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241 Radiobio Unit 1

241 Radiobiology Unit 1

ALARA stands for what As Low As Reasonably Achievable
BERT stands for Background Equivalent Radiation Time
Perceived Risk is what an individual or group thinks the risk is
Risk comparison is the comparison between 2 or more activities
Every use of radiation involves a potential _____ risk small
If radiation is underused it does not benefit the public health and is detrimental on the bell curve, True or False True
If radiation is overused it dose benefit the public health and is beneficial on the bell curve, True or False False-Overuse is just as bad as under use of radiation.
If a procedure has a Risk of +6 should the patient undergo the examination Yes, when both the risk is low(positive) and the benefit is high(positive) then the patient will benefit the most, however if the Risk is high and the benefit is low (negative) then the patient should not have the exam
Radiologic technologists are also called what Radiologic science professionals
What are the 3 radiologic science professional fields Radiographer, Nuclear medicine technologists and radiation therapists
What are the 3 common goals of radiologic professional 1)Promote diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of exams,2)Provide Radiation protection,3)provide the highest level of patient care possible
Who is the best individuals to protect the public from radiation Technologists
GSD stands for genetically significant dose
Genetically significant dose (GSD) is the measure of the genetic exposure to the _____ from diagnostic and other forms of ionizing radiation population- it indicates the genetic load on the population
ESE stands for Entrance skin exposure
Entrance skin exposure (ESE) is determined how without the patient by using technical and geometric factors it decreases with added filtration
Apathetic technologists are what technologists who avoid unnecessary radiation only as much as they are compelled to do so by mandate of law or department rules
Actively involved technologists are what technologists that recognize professional responsibility by practicing radiation protection to the benefit of the patient. They go above and beyond what is “necessary”
Radiologists are not considered educators, True or False False-Radiographers provide education to patients, other health care workers, the general public, and to Rad students
Cyrile Houle developed a list of six orientations to learning what are they 1)Oblivious person,2)Uninvolved person,3)Resistant person,4)Someday person,5)Focused person, and 6)Comprehensive person
Laws are rules of behavior that do not have to be followed , True or False False-Laws MUST be followed
Ethics are rules of behavior that do not have to be followed however, they are based on acceptable behaviors(guidelines), True or False True
ASRT stands for American Society of Radiologic Technologists
TS/SNM stands for Technologist Section/Society of Nuclear Medince
Safe Medical Device Act of 1991 states that technologists must report faulty/broken equipment
Licensure is the process by which some competent authority grants permission to a qualified individual or entity to perform certain specified activities, True or False True
The goal of licensure is to protect the public from excessive ionizing radiation, not to raise professional standing of practitioners
Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981 states 1)provides standards for accreditation of programs for education individuals responsible for administering radiation to patients,2)licensing standards for radiologic technologists
For negligence to be proven what 4 things must be satisfied 1)A duty on the part of the professional exists,2)a breach of duty must be shown,3)the cause must be due to an action on the part of the professional,4)An injury must be proven
As students we have a duty to ____attempt examinations until ready to do so Not
X-rays are a form of _______ ______ electromagnetic Radiation
Xrays are similar to ____ ____ but are of shorter wavelength visible light
Xrays have ____ mass or charge but behave as both ___ and ____ depending on how they are viewed NO, waves and Particles
A photon is what smallest packet of energy
Xrays are the ____ penetrating electromagnetic waves MOST
Xrays have the ability to pass though matter, True or False TRUE
Xrays are heterogeneous meaning they contain many different wavelengths
Xrays are polyenergetic meaning they contain many different energies
Differential absorption is dependent on what 2 things thicknesses of the parts and atomic number of tissue
Xray photons travel in what straight divergent lines isotrophically (in all directions)
Xrays can be focused by lenses, True or False FALSE
Xrays are electrically neutral, True or False True
Xrays have mass and particles associated with it, True or False False- Xrays have no mass or particle they are considered “pure energy”
Xrays produce secondary and scatter radiation when interacting with ______ Matter
Secondary Radiation is radiation produced inside an object by interactions between the photon and the atoms inside the object, True or False TRUE
Scatter Radiation is produced when xray interacts with matter and have their direction and or energy levels ______ Change
Xrays cause _____ to fluoresce crystals
Xrays affect ______ film photographic
Xrays ____ all matter including gases Ionize
Xrays do not cause biological changes, True or False FALSE
What are the 6 medical uses of Xrays 1)Plain Film radiography,2)Fluoroscopy,3)Tomography,4)Mammography,5)Computed radiography,6)Computed tomography
What are the 3 components of an xray tube 1)vacuum,2)Cathode,3) Anode
mAs is the measurement of the number of electrons moving from the ____ to the _____ cathode to Anode
The electrons, depending on the kVp set can travel at half the speed of light, True or False TRUE
kVp determines the ____energy of the xrays produced and the _____ ability of them Maximum, penetrating
The Radiation produced in the tube is called _____ _____ Primary Radiation
What are the 2 types of radiation produced Bremsstrahlung and Characteristic
Brems Radiation is known as _____ _____ braking radiation
Characteristic radiation is produced when what happens an inner shell electron is knocked out and then an outer shell electron drops into its place
Leakage radiation is what radiation that does not pass thought the window and is of diagnostic use (leaks out of the tube housing)
Portions of the primary beam that pass though the patient without interacting are called what Remnant radiation
Radiation that is produced in the patient is called secondary radiation
Alternating current is what electrons that alternate directions in a circuit
_____ is the processes of modifying the AC to DC Rectification
3 types of rectification are single phase rectification, three phase rectification, and High frequency rectification
In single phase rectification the ______ pulses are converted to _____ pulses Negative, Positive
The U.S. uses _____Hertz power 60
The problem with single phase rectification is that ______ is not constant Voltage-It goes from 0 to 100% then back to 0%
Root mean square value is what a measure of the average energy in the beam
In single phase rectification you are only getting about ____ % of the peak voltage set 70%,- to find the effective voltage (RMS) you need to multiply the peek by 0.707, and to find the maximum from the effective multiply it by 1.41
______ phase is the most commonly used type of rectification Three
Voltage never goes all the way to 0 when using three phase, True or False True
Three phase six pulse equipment you get about ____% of your peek voltage 92%
The RMS value of a 3phase 12 pulse is ____% 97
In High frequency generators the incoming 60Hz power is changed to as much as ______Hz power 6000
The RMS value of High frequency generators is ___ to ___% 97-98%
____ ____ generators the mA is not constant but is allowed to decrease during the exposure Falling Load
The main purpose of falling load generators is to reduce ___ ___ and permit a better use of the ___ ____ exposure time, tube limits
In Falling load generators the technologist can only set ____ mAs
What 2 types of generators are used in mobile equipment 1)Capacitor-discharge, 2) Battery powered
______ _____ is dynamic imaging or the imaging of motion Fluoroscopic imaging
_____ _____ is a piece of equipment that emits light when struck by xrays in fluoroscopy Fluorescent screens
Intensification screens do what improves the brightness of the image
The weakest link in fluoroscopic imaging process is the ____ _____ _____ TV monitor resolution
Resolution is measured in _______ line pairs per mm (lp/mm)
The total brightness gain(in image intensifiers) is a product of the gain due to making the image smaller times the flux gain, True or False True
The minification gain is calculated by the ratio of the area of the imput phosphor (Screen) to the output screen squared, True or False TRUE
______is a general term used to describe the process of emitting radiant energy in the form of waves or particles Radiation
Radiation can be defined as ____in ____ energy in transit
When did Roentgen discover xrays November 8th 1895
_____discovered that certain naturally occurring substances emitted radiation who was he Becquerel
Becquerel discovered 3 different types of radiation that were later named by Ernest Rutherford, what are their names Alpha, Beta, and Gamma
______ Radiation produces positively and negatively charged particles as it passes though matter Ionizing
There are 2 ways of creating radiation what are they Natural and Man made
Atomic number or ____ number represents the # of protons in an atom Z
Changing the number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom often makes it ______ Radioactive
____radiation is made up of four particles and does not penetrate matter easily Alpha
Alpha radiation is the ______moving radiation slowest
______ radiation is made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons and has a mass of ___amu(atomic mass units) Alpha, 4
Alpha particles are produced by _____ ____ primarily of heavy atoms such as plutonium nuclear disintegration
Naturally occurring alpha particles can travel ___ to ___ cm 4 to 8
Alpha particles can penetrate a piece of paper, True or False False
Personnel monitoring devices are sensitive to Alpha particles, True or False False
Alpha particles are Helium nuclei that have no electrons, True or False True experiments show that if a gas filled vessel is irradiated for some time that the alpha particles bind with electrons creating neutral helium atoms
_____ _____ is only produced in or near the nucleus of the atom and essentially consists of high speed electrons Beta radiation
Beta particles can travel approx 3 meters/MeV of energy in air and up to several ______ in tissue Millimeters
Beta particles are used in medical treatments, True or False True-Radioactive phosphorus is used to reduce fluid accumulation in the serosal cavities resulting from metastatic carcinoma
When beta rays travel though a _____ ____ their course is deflected or changed magnetic field—this suggests that they consist of streams of charged particles (Electrons)
_____ and ____ are similar to visible light, radio waves, and microwaves Xrays and Gamma rays
All electromagnetic waves travel with the same velocity what is it 10x108 meters per second or 186000miles per second
_____ and _____rays have the highest frequency and the shortest wavelength Gamma, X
Gamma rays are identical to Xrays in 5 ways name them energy, wavelength, frequency, no mass, no charge
Gamma rays originate from _____ the nucleus within
Most radioactive materials used in medicine emit gamma rays, True or False True
Brachytherapy means what short distance irradiation of cancer close to the surface of the body or within the body
Teletherapy means what irradiation of cancer lesion with the source of radiation distant from the body
There are 2 different units used to measure radiation one the world uses and one the U.S. uses what are they Systeme International (SI) and Traditional (AKA Customary units)
When measuring radiation in air the traditional unit used is the ____ and the SI unit is _____ roentgen(R), coulombs per kilogram(C/kg)
R or C/kg is a measure of the ionization of air produced by xradiation and gamma radiation below ___ million electron volts 3MeV
_____ ____ is a doubly ionized helium atom Alpha particle
Alpha particles have a charge of ____ +2
Beta particle Negatron have a charge of ____ and Positrons have a _____ -1, +1
The absorbed dose of a patient is measured in ____ Traditional and ____ SI RAD(Radiation Absorbed Dose) and Gray(Gy)
KERMA stands for Kinetic Energy Released in Matter
A Rad is defined as an energy transfer of 100ergs (small unit of energy) per gram of any absorbing material, True or False True
1 Rad = ___R 1
The ratio between the number of ______ and the number of ____ is called the f-factor Roetgens(exposure), Rads(energy transfer)
____are determined by multiplying the absorbed dose(RAD) times a quality factor and are expressed as dose equivalences REM
REM stands for Radiation equivalent man
____ and ____ are units of biological effect Rem and Sievert
____ ____ is a measure of the biologic impact or damage of a particular type of radiation Quality Factor
Rems are the most commonly used to measure personnel does, True or False True
When measuring Radioactivity the traditional unit is the ____ and the SI unit is the ____ Curie, Becquerel
Curie and Becquerel measure rate of nuclear disintegration (Decay) of a material, True or False True
Curie is defined as ________disintegrations per second of any radioactive substance 3.7x1010
The Becquerel is defined as one decay per second of any radioactive substance, True or False True
The Curie is larger than the Becquerel, True or False True
The activity of a radiation source does not remain constant but tends to decrease with time this is known as Radioactive Decay
The characteristic time of radioactive decay is known as the Half life- the time it takes a radioactive material to decay to 50% of the original activity
____ are used in dosimetry and measure biologic effects Rems
1R x ______=1 C/kg 2.58x10-4
1Rad x _____= 1gray 0.01
1Rem x _____= 1 sievert 0.01
1 Ci x ______=1 becquerel 3.7x1010
______is the determination by scientific methods of the amount, rate, and distribution of radiation emitted from a source of ionizing radiation Dosimetry
____is a device used to detect and measure exposure to radiation Dosimeter
____is a person who plans an optimal radiation treatment dosage pattern or who establishes a radiation distribution pattern for Radiation therapy dosimetrist
2 general classes of instruments are used to detect ionizing radiation what are they Field survey instruments and Personnel monitors
Field survey instruments come in 3 basic types name them Ionization chambers, Geiger-Mueller detector and the portable scintillation detector
_____ _____ determines the amount of radiation by collecting ions in a chamber filled with gas ionization chamber
Ionization chambers are sensitive to a wide range of radation energies from about ___ to ____ and are portable 10 mR to several hundred R
Ionization chambers are good at detecting what 3 types of radiation xrays, gamma rays and high energy beta
Ionization chambers are not well suited to detecting alpha radiation or low levels of radioactive contamination, True or False True
Geiger-Mueller counters (GM) determine the amount of radiation by collecting ions in a gas, housed in the detector probe, True or False True
GM counters can detect what 3 types of radation Alpha , Beta and Gamma, however, not low levels of them
GM counters are most useful in detection rather than measurement of radiation sources, and should not be used for exposure or rate measurements, True or False True
_______ ______ uses a sodium iodide or cesium iodide crystal that produces small flashes of light upon exposure to radiation Scintillation counter
A _____ ____ converts flashes of light into electric impulses which can be measured photomultiplier tube
Scintillation counter is the most sensitive detector to _____ and ____ radiation xray and gamma
Name the 3 basic types of personnel monitors Film Badges, Thermoluminescent dosimeters, and pocket ionization chambers
Name the 5 desirable characteristics in personnel monitors 1)portability, 2) Ruggedness, 3) sensitivity, 4) reliability and 5) low cost
Personnel monitoring is preformed in any situation in which an individual is expected to receive 10% of the effective dose equivalent, True or False True
____ ____ are the most common and are used to measure whole body irradiation Film badges
Film badges are sensitive down to about ____ 10mRem
Film badges are most sensitive to an energy of ____keV 50
Film badges are made up of a film holder that has a number of ____ over the film in order to estimate the amount and type of radiation making the exposure. filters
Film badge reports are more accurately called a ___ ____ ____ because it can report on doses from both Film badges and TLDs Radiation dosimetry report
The badge reports normally take ___ to ___ weeks to arrive back at the department after reaching the vendor 4-6
Radiation dosimetry reports are normally measured in ______ millirems
_____ _____ stores radiation energy by alternation s in its crystalline structure Thermoluminescent dosimeter
In TLDs the energy is released when the crystals is heated to several hundre degrees, True or False-True
TLD’s are less sensitive than film badges, True or False False, TLDs are sensitive to about 5 mrem
TLD’s biggest disadvantage is what They do not provide a permanent record, if the report is incorrect then there is no way to go back and check it again
Ring Badges are a film badge, True or False False they are a type of TLD
____ ____ ____ have the advantage of providing immediate readings but are not wide in use because they must be recalibrated daily and must be read immediately as the electrical charge inside the dosimeter bleeds off. Pocket Ionization chambers
Pocket Ionization chambers are not easily damaged by mechanical trauma, True or False False dropping or bumping it can cause the reading to be incorrect
Pocket ionization chambers only measure what 2 types of radiation Xray and Gamma
Pocket Ionization chambers that can be held to the light and read are called ____ _____ self reading dosimeter
When xray or gamma photons in the primary beam pass though matter they undergo ____ or ___ absorption or scatter
Absorption and Scatter are methods of ____ attenuation
Attenuation is the reduction in the number of photons as they pass though matter, True or False True
Primary Radiation – attenuation = _______ remnant or exit radiation
Gamma radiation is produced outside the nucleus of atoms and are considered monoenergetic False- they are produced INSIDE the nucleus of atoms
HVL means what Half value layer-the amount of attenuator necessary to remove half of all the photons in the beam
Photons will pass though matter and not interact this is called _____ Transmission
Photons can interact with the entire atom, the nucleus or the electrons, True or False True
What shell in an atom has the highest binding energy K
Inner shell electrons have a high binding energy but a low ____ energy potential
Potential energy is the ability to do work , True or False True
What 4 factors affect attenuation 1)Atomic Density, 2)Atomic number, 3) Energy of beam is increased, 4)Electons per gram
Name the 5 interactions of xrays and gamma rays with matter 1) Photoelectric effect, 2) Compton Scatter, 3) Coherent scatter, 4) Pair production, 5) Photodisintegration
______ _____ all of the energy of the incoming photon is totally transferred to the atom. Photoelectric effect
Photoelectric effects occurs when the incoming photon excites an inner shell electron to the point of breaking its binding energy and causing it to eject from the atom, True or False True, the energy needs to be at or slightly above the binding energy of the electron
Lead has a z number of ___ and a K shell energy of __ 82, 88.0
Barium has a Z number of ___ and a K shell energy of ___ 56, 33.2
Tungsten has a Z number of ___ and a K shell energy of ___ 74, 70
What are the 2 basic rules of Photoelectric interactions 1) are more likely to occur if the photon’s energy is greater than but close to the binding energy of the electron and 2) have a greater likelihood of occurrence when the electron is more tightly bound in its orbit
The energy of the photons coming from the tube is approximately ____ the maximum energy set on the control panel 1/3
The likelihood of photoelectric interactions is approx ___ Z3
An atom that has lost an electron and the electron that is lost are known as ___ ___ Ion Pairs
Electrons ejected from photoelectric interactions are known as ______ photoelectrons or Recoil electrons
One photoelectric interaction may cause many more ion pairs to be formed because why because 1 ion pair can interact with other atom’s and electrons causing them to become ionized
The atom that has had its inner shell electron ejected because of a photoelectric interaction has its ___ shell electrons drop into the inner shell hole and causes ______ ____ outer, Characteristic cascade
Characteristic photons are also called ____ ____ Secondary Radiation
___ ____ is a process in which a photon is partially absorbed by an outer shell electron being ejected from its atom while the rest of the photon exits the atom. Compton scatter
Compton scatter is not a hazard to personnel, True or False False Compton scatter is the largest hazard to personnel
The electron that is ejected from a Compton Interaction is called a ______ Compton or Recoil electron
The angle of deflection refers to the degree of change in the photon when it has been scattered, it can range from ___ to ___ degrees 0 to 180 degrees
If a photon changes directions 180 Degrees it is called _____ Backscatter
Coherent scatter has 3 other known names what are they Classic, Rayleigh, or Thompson
_____ ____ the photon causes excitation in the over all energy of the atom rather than ionization, the energy is then released in a different direction but has the same energy and wavelength as it went into the atom with. Coherent Scattering
____ _____ occus when the incoming photon has energy of above 1.02 MeV Pair Production
Pair production is an interaction is a good example of the conversion of energy into matter and matter back into energy, True or False True
When an Incident photon strikes the nucleus of an atom in pair production, 2 new electrons are produced what are they called Negatron and Positron
Negatrons are not easily absorbed by other tissues, True or False False Negatrons are negatively charged electrons
Positrons are a form of antimatter, True or False True, they are a positively charged electron, and are not able to exist freely in nature
When a positron interacts with another electron both particles are destroyed while energy equaling half the incident photon is released from the interaction, what is this called annihilation reaction
As Z number decreases the probability of pair production increases, True or False False, Z number needs to Increase
______ occurs above 10MeV, a high energy photon is absorbed by the nucleus and becomes excited, causing it to become radioactive, to revert to a stable state the nucleus ejects a neutrons, protons, alpha particles, clusters of fragments and or gamma rays
Alpha radiation is _______energetic Mono
Beta particles and positrons are ______energetic Poly
2 main types of interactions of charged particles with matter are ___ and ____ elastic and inelastic
Elastic interactions there is no change in the total kinetic energy of the interacting particles as the energy is transferred from one particle to another, True or False True
Inelastic interactions the total energy is changed after the interaction because some of the kinetic energy is transformed into other types of energy such as xrays, True or False TRUE
Bremsstrahlung is a type of inelastic interaction, True or False TRUE
LET stands for Linear Energy Transfer
SI (Not units of measure) stands for Specific Ionization
LET is the radiation absorption rate of an attenuator, True or False True it is the rate at which energy is deposited in the form of charged particles as it travels though matter
Specific Ionization is not closely related to LET, True or False False as SI increases so does LET
Specific Ionization (SI) is the number of ion pairs produced per u nit of distance traveled
Xrays are high LET/SI, True or False False, Xrays are considered low because they do not give off energy easily but they have high penetrability
_____ ____ is the actual measure of radiation received by a portion of the patients skin and is measured by ______ Skin Dose, TLDs
_____ _____ _____ is an estimated value of exposure by using technical factors and geometry of an exposure, the patient is not needed. Entrance skin Exposure
____ ____ measures the percentage of skin dose found at a certain depth within a patient Depth Dose
_____ _____ is the dose received by a particular organ Organ Dose
____ ____ is sometimes used instead of Organ Dose Average Dose
___ ____ total amount of energy absorbed by a specific mass of tissue Integral dose
When calculating the radiation dose from radioactive substances in the body what 5 factors must be known 1)amount of the radionuclide in curies 2)Physical half life ofthe radionuclide 3)mixture of radiation such as alpha,beta and emitted,4)Fraction ofthe substance in each organ ofthe body 5)the biologic half life of the material
____ ____ is the length of time the substance remains in each organ of the body Biologic half life
Higher Atomic Number elements have a lower binding energy, True or False False
Photoelectric effects happen at what KVP lvl 30-15
Compton scatter happens at what voltage level 150kv-3MV
Coherent scatter happens at what voltage level 10-20 kev
Pair Production happens at what voltage level 1.02
Photodisintegration happens at what voltage level 10MV
Negative pi-meson are what negative particles produced by linear accelerators
____ is a nucleus of “heavy hydrogen with 1 proton and 1 neutron
Protons are Hydrogen nuclei, True or False True
What was the first visible unit of measurement for radiation Skin Erythema Dose
F-Factor depends on energy of phton, atomic # , density, and thickness of tissue, True or False True
The F- Factor is another indicator of absorbed dose, True or False True
The ratio between the # of R and the # of Rads is the _______ F-Factor
Xrays have a QF of 1
Protons have a QF of 2
Thermal neutrons less than 10kev has a QF of 5
Fast neutrons 100keV-2Mev has a QF of 20
Alpha particles have a QF of 20
MCP unknown energy have QF of 20
DE(Rem)= Rad times QF
DE(Sv)= Gray times QF
______ _____ Radiation is measured indirectly by measuring effect radiation has on a medium such as air or film or crystals Detection instruments
Occupational Exposure for medicine is what 150mRem
Industry occupational exposure is what 240mRem
Nuclear power occupational exposure is what 560mRem
Government occupational exposure is what 120mRem
Miscellaneous occupational exposure is what 160mRem
Other worker occupational exposure is what 180mRem
Other(visitors) Occupational Exposure is what 9mRem
OSL stands for Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter
OSL use what phosphor Aluminum Oxide
OSL luminescence occurs when the dosimeter is struck by ____ ____ laser light
The luminescence of an OSL is proportional to the amount of _____ _____ received radiation exposure
Ionization chambers are also known as ____ ____ cutie pie
Ionization chambers used most often to determine ____ ____ exposure rate
Proportional counters are used in labs to detect what ____ and ____ alpha and beta
____ ____ is a device used to accelerate subatomic particles for radiation therapy, radionuclide production and physics research Linear Accelarator
Linear Accelarators produces megavoltages of ___ to ___ 4-40
Created by: Ravann
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