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211 Procedures 3

211 Special Procedures Radiography

Rubor redness
Calor heat
Tumor swelling
Dolor pain
5 clinical signs of acute inflammation redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function
Prediction of the course and end of a disease and an outlook based on that is called prognosis
A disease that presents slowly and lasts over a long period of time chronic
Severe arterial disease of the extremities that may result in necrosis of the digits gangrene
Possible causative factors of cancer chemical carcinogen, genetic predisposition, uv rays, atomic radiation, xrays
Grading is what assessing of the aggressiveness or degree of malignancy
Staging is what extensiveness of a tumor and primary site and the presence or absence of metastising to other organs
Disadvantages to C Arms
When the anode angle is decreased the focal spot size ____ decreases
When anode angle increases the field size______ increases
Angiography of lower extremities is preformed using a _____ table step
In biplane radiopraphy it is necessary to have ________ separate generators
Angiographic generators should have the capacity for the radiographer to set atleast what ma 1000
The focal spot size should be what in angiography .3
Simultaneous biplane exposure causes more scatter true
Biplane filming increase the amount of contrast media given to a patient false
The purpose of an automatic injector is steady flow, inject large amounts of contrast quickly
Electromechanical injectors are called flowrate injectors
Flow rate of contrast in automatic injectors is increased by decreased viscosity, increased amount of holes, increased injection pressure, decrease length, increase diameter
1) Pathology the study of diseases
2) Etiology the study of disease causes
3) Iatrogenic resulting from the activity of diagnosis or treatment by medical personnel.
4) Idiopathic Having an unknown cause for underlying disease
5) Inflammation the Initial response of body tissue to local injury
6) Edema Accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of body cavities
7) Ischemia Lack of blood supply to an organ or tissue
8) Infarction the Death of a tissue because of interruption of the normal blood supply
9) Hemorrhage Bleeding or abnormal blood flow from the vessel into the tissue
10) Necrosis Death of tissue
11) Exudate Material (fluid, cells, or cellular debris) that has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces usually as a result of inflammation
12) Phagocytosis the process by which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris
13) Granulation Tissue Combination of young, developing capillaries and actively proliferating fibroblasts producing connective tissue fibers
14) Adhesion a band of scar tissue that binds anatomic surfaces that normally are separate from each other
15) Keloid The accumulation of excessive amounts of collagen (more common in African Americans) which produces a protruding, tumor-like scar
16) Pyogenic Bacteria that lead to the production of a thick, yellow fluid called pus
17) Suppurative puss forming
18) Abscess Encapsulated collection of pus
19) Petechiae Minimal hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, or serousal surfaces
20) Purpura Spontaneous hemorrhages in the skin or mucous membranes
21) Ecchymoisis bluish discoloration of an area of skin or mucous membrane caused by extravasation of blood into tissue---AKA Bruise
22) Atrophy A wasting or decrease in size or physiologic activity of a part of the body b/c of disease or other influences
23) Hypoplasia underdevelopment of an organ or a tissue
24) Hypertrophy increase in the size of an organ caused by an increase in the size of the cells rather than the number of cells
25) Neoplasia/Neoplasm new and abnormal growth
26) Cachexia general ill health and malnutrition marked by weakness and emaciation usually associated with severe disease
27) Benign noncancerous and therefore not a direct threat to life
28) Malignant tending to become worse and to cause death
29) Adenoma benign tumor of glandular epithelium in which the cells of the tumor are arranged in a recognizable glandular structure
30) Lipoma tumor composed of fat
31) Myoma a common benign fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle
32) Angioma any benign tumor with blood vessels or lymph vessels
33) Papilloma a benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by a branching or lobular tumor
34) Polyp a small tumor like growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface
35) Adenocarcinoma any one of a large group of malignant epithelial cell tumors of the glandular tissue
36) Squamous Cell carcinoma a slow growing malignant tumor of the squamous epithelium
37) Sarcoma highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissues
38) Opportunistic infections an infection caused by normally nonpathogenic organisms in a host whose resistance has been decreased by disorders
39) Mutations Alterations in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes
40) Down’s syndrome congenital condition characterized by varying degrees of mental retardation and multiple defects
41) Turner’s syndrome a chromosomal anomaly in female births characterized by the absence of one X chromosome
42) Klinefelters syndrome a condition of the gonadal defects appearing in males after puberty, caused by an extra X chromosome in atleast one cell line
43) Phenylketonuria--abnormal presence of phenylketone and other metabolites of phenylalanine in the urine abnormal presence of phenylketone and other metabolites of phenylalanine in the urine
44) Homocystinuria rare biochemical abnormality characterized by the abnormal presence of homocystine, an amino acid, in the blood and urine
45) Alkaptonuria Inherited disorder in which a large excretion of acid in the urine causes the urine to turn dark
46) Ochronosis Inherited disorder in which accumulation of homogentisic acid results in degenerative arthritis and brown-black pigment deposited in connective tissue and cartilage
47) Cystinuria Abnormal prescence of the amino acid cystine in the urine
48) Gaucher's Disease Disorder of lipid metabolism caused by enzyme deficiency which causes splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and abnormal cone growth
49) Marfan's Syndrome A hereditary condition with major muscular skeletal effects including muscular underdevelopment, ligamentous laxity, joint hypermobility, and bone elongation.
50) Immunoglobulins Any of five structurally distinct classes (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM) of protiens that function as antibodies. In respone to specific antigens, immunoglobulins are formed in bone marrow, spleen, and all lymphoid tissues except the thymus.
51) AIDS syndrome involving a defect in cell-mediated immunity that has a long incubation period, follows a protracted and debilitating course, manifested by various opportunistic infections and without treatment has a poor prognosis
52) HIV a retrovirus that causes AIDS produced the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which allows the viral RNA genome to be transcribed into DNA inside the host cell
53) Diagnosis identification of a disease or condition by a scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, laboratory test results and procedures
54) Prognosis a prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on the condition of the person and the usual course of the disease as observed in similar situations
55) Mortality Rate the death rate
56) Morbidity Rate an excess of body fat, or weight of 100 lbs over ideal body weight, that increase the risk of developing cardiac and endocrine disturbances
special procedures are defined as radiographic method of demonstrating certain anatomic features that lack natural contrast by instilling a substance to produce contrast
2 types of radiography diagnostic and therapeutic
diagnostic procedures are used for what to identify a particular pathologic process
therapeutic procedures are used for what treating a pathologic process
if an angiographic vessel is an artery then the exam is called what arteriogram
Venography is what angiogram of veins
Interventional procedures are for what to treat the pathologic process
x-ray generators in angiography need to have a ____ minimum mA 500 or 1000
What is the focal spot size that that is needed for angiography 0.3
Heat unit formula HU=kvp*mA*s*C
What are the 4 (C) factors for the Heat unit formula for the types of generators Single Phase 1 3 phase 6 pulse 1.35 3 phase 12 pulse 1.41 High Freq 1.45
SIRD stands for what Source-Image Receptor Distance
As the angle of the target decreases the effective focal spot size is increased, True or False False as the target decreases the focal spot is decreased
as the target angle is decreased the field size decrease
When doing biplane radiography you need to have what 2 c arms and 2 generators
DICOM stands for Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine standard
NEMA stands for National Electronics Manufacturers Association
Created by: Ravann