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1st lecture of wound

WSU Kirsten Fields

Largest external organ of the body skin
how much does skin weigh 6lbs
how long is skin 20ft
how much of the body's blood volume does skin receive 1/3
how many dead skins cells do you lose every minute of every day 30,000 to 40,000
how many skins cells are produced at any given time >300 million
how many lbs of skin cells are produced in a year 10lbs
5 primary fxns of skin 1. protection 2. temperature regulation 3. sensation 4. metabolism 5. communication
what does skin protect the body from? bacterial invasion and external elements (water, chemicals, mechanica, bacterial, viral, UV radiation)
What does skin prevent excessive loss of? fluid and electrolytes
Skin strives to maintain what and has what type of response? homeostasis and immunological response
what does skin produce sebum: a lipid rich oily substance (helps keep flora out)
where is sebum secreted at sebaceous glands
what does sebum provide and what does it do the growth of micro-organisms provides acidic coating retards it
what does melanin do and what provides it protects against UV rays skin pigmentation
what is the pH of the acid mantle and what does it do? 5.5 help keep skin from bacteria and fungal infection, indirect protection against microorganisms and alkaline substances helps maintain normal skin flora(staph aureus, staph epidermis, yeast)
What things would change the pH of skin: eczema contact dermatitis atopic dermatitis and dry skin diabetes, chronic renal failure and cerebrovascular disease
what areas are most sensitive to touch most number of nn endings (fingers, lips, nipples)
Finger allow for identification without what sight (stereognosis)
what type of area would have reduced tactile sensitivity shaved areas
hairless reagions - tactile corpuscles- meissner's corpuscles transmit what? firm tough, hugs, etc via skin to the brain ( how much force u apply to lift something up)
somatic pain -out body surface- is submitted through what: -superficial acute pain travel at what spd through waht fiber? - deep chronic pain skin fast : A delta nn fiber slowly : thin myelinated C fibers
how do you regulate temp fluid & electrolyte balance (sweat) thermoregulation: (hypothalamus response to internal core temp) peripheral temp receptors assist w/ homeostasis (remove hand if something is hot)-water loss through lungs, skin, buccal mucosa)
skin temp is regulated by what vaso dilation and restriction
metabolism regulation of vit d synthesis in skin in presence of sunlight-through conversion of sebum sterol to cholecalcifoerol (vit D)
what are the psychosocial/ communication effects of skin appearance and care of skin: confidence use of skin in conjunction w/ underlying mm for expression sensation fo touch= feel in of comfort, concern, friendship, love, etc
what are the two layers of skin epidermis and the dermis
how often does the epidermis regenerate every 4-6 wks
what does the epidermis do repels water, protective barrier against micro-organism, prevents water loss, protects against shear, friction and toxic irritants,
is the epidermis vascular no its avascular
what does the epidermis contain melanin
what happens to the dead cells of the epidermis shed
how many layer of start are there and what are they composed of 5 keratinocytes
epithelial cell layers stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum germinativum
what is the - superficial layer of dead skin cells. Shed daily, outermost layer (made of keratinocyte cells) stratum corneum
what is the -clear layer) only present in thick skin, Cell nothing more than a bag of keratin-found only in palms/soles. stratum lucidum
what is the multilayer 1-5 cells thick, cells become depressed and aid n keratin formation-keratinocytes/langerhans cells (where they are). Stratum granulosum
what is (spiny layer) several layers thick, cells begin to produce keratin, cells begin to flatten-keratinocytes/langerhans cells stratum spinosum
what is (granular layer) AKA stratum basale, only one cell thick. Only layer in which cells undergo mitosis to form new cells. stratum germinativum
Protrusions of this layer (rete pegs) extend down into the dermis to provide support and facilitation of fluid and cell exchange between the skin layers.-melanocytes and Merkel cells stratum germinativum
-manufacture keratin (protein responsible for the toughness of the epidermis) keratinocytes
It takes these cells 4-6 weeks to migrate from the stratum germinativum to the stratum corneum keratinocytes
specialized structures which bind adjacent keratinocytes to one another and give cohesion to each layer during its upward progression. desmosomes
produce and distribute melanin throughout all the layers of the epidermis melanocytes
- first line of defense against environmental antigens langerhans cells
- forms the junction between the dermis and the epidermis – this layer keeps the epidermis and dermis from sliding on each other. basement layer
As we age, this junction flattens out and diminished the amount of surface between the layers, reducing nutrient transfer, and decreasing resistance to sheering that separates the two layers . baseemtn layer
cells of the epidermis Kertinocytes desmosome melanocytes Langerhans cells basement membran
supports and nourishes the epidermis dermis
varies in thickness depending on area of body dermis
contains fewer cells than epidermis - made up of fibroblasts (secretes proteins of collagen and elastin), fibrous and amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) macrophages, lyphocytes and mast cells dermis
has bloods supply dermis
has nerves dermis
sweat and sebaceous glands are located where and they transported to the body surface through what dermis sweat ducts
hair follicles are located where dermis
waht is the dermis made up of protein (collagen and elastin)
where are the cells for the dermis produced in bone marrow
what is the thickest layer of skin dermis
(on test)scavenger cells that ingest dead tissues and cells, repair injured tissues, act as defense mechanisms macrophages
mast cells
Created by: klkoester