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Physics U3 & HW

Anything that occupies space and has inertia(mass) Matter
Smallest subdivision of substance having the physical properties of the substance Molecule
what determines the state a molecule is in and what are the types of states? the degree of attraction; solid, liquid, or gas
Has the strongest molecule attraction Solid
Has the weakest molecule attraction Liquid
which type of molecule attraction repels the gas
Smallest particle of an element that has the characteristic properties of that element and can combine chemically with one or more atoms of another element Atoms
What are the 4 atoms of the Greek earth, fire, water and air
Who compared the atoms to hooks and eyes in 1808? Dalton
Who compared the atom to plum pudding Thompson
Who compared the atom to the solar system in 1913 Bohr
Any material that has definite constant composition Substance
Elements, cannot be decomposed to simpler substances by ordinary means Simple substance
These are compounds Complex substance
A chemical union of two or more elements in definite proportions Complex substance
Give an example of a substance Salt also a complex substance
Give an example of simole substance sodium and oxygen
This is the positive charged center of an atom that contains most of the atom's mass Nucleus
The nucleus of an atom contains what percent of the mass? 99%
What was Bohr's Theory The atom is represented as a miniature solar system analogous to the sun with the planets revolving around it
Negatively charged particles that circle the nucleus each in its own path or shell Orbital electrons
How are electrons grouped by their shells or energy levels
What is the binding energy of a shell that is close to the nucleus The binding energy is strong but the energy shell is weak
What is the binding energy of a shell that is farther away from the nucleus The binding energy is weak but the energy shell is strong
The periodic table is an arrangement of all the electrons in an orderly series
Who developed the periodic table and how did he arrange the electrons Medndleev; accroding to the lowest atomic number to the highest or how many electrons in the outer shell
How may groups are in the periodic table 8 vertical
Represents families of elements that have similar chemical properties Groups
What is the exception in the periodic table Hydrogen
Group 1 is Alkali metals and has 1 electronin the outer shell
group 2 has 2 electrons in the outer shell
group 7 are halagens
group 8 are nobel gases(inhert elements)
The horizontal rows of the periodic table are based upon what and how many are there? Based on the number of electron shells and there are 7
All of the elements in each row of the periodic table have the same number of what but different _________ properties. Electron Shells; Chemical
ªᵣXⁿ Define each letter a=mass #; r=Atomic #; X=Element; n=Valence #
the shell number is referred to as The quantum number
The outer most shell does not what have to contain the maximum number of electrons
No outer shell contains more than 8 electrons
All atoms seek to have 8 electrons in its outer shel, what is this octet rule
What is the formula to calculate the maximum number the electrons a shell can hold 2n² (n=the energy shell)
how many electrons can the n shell hold 2(4)²= 16x 2= 32
A nucleus contains Protons and neutrons
Positive charge,equal and opposite to an electron Protons
How much heavier is a proton than an electron 1828 times heavier
Has a mass slightly greater than a proton neutron
Why is a neutron slightly greater than a proton because it is really a proton and an electron united
What are the building blocks of an atom protons, neutrons, and electrons
Why must the number of protons be equal to the number of electrons because an atom is always going to try to keep a neutral charge of 0
Is determined by the number of electrons in the outer shell of the atom Valence #
What are the positive valence #'s 1 outer shell electron +1; 2 outer electrons +2; 3 outer electrons +3
What are the negative valence #'s 7 outer electrons -1; 6 outer electrons -2; 5 outer electrons -3
The number of (+) charges/protons in the nucleus of an atom Atomic #
What is the symbol for the atomic # z
the total number of protons and neutrons(nucleons) in the nuceus of a atom Mass # or atomic #
Symbol for atomic # or mass # A
Atoms that have the same number of nuclear protons(same atomic number) but different number of nucleur neutrons(different mass number) Isotopes
What are the two types of chemical bonding Covalent and Ionic
Sharing of the electrons to achieve the Octet Rule and has a weaker bond Covalent bonding
Ionization must occur in an attenpt to achieve the octet rule and has a strong bond Ionic bonding advanced
Give an example of a covalent bond water two atoms of hydrogen(each with 1 electron in its outer shell) share their electrons with 1 atom of oxygen that has 6 electrons in its outer shell
Give an example of ionic bonding NaCl Chlorine with 7 electrons in its outer shell steals the 1 electron in the sodiums outer shell which causes them to become oppositely charged. They are magnetically attracted to each other in bond
What are not involved in the ionization process protons
The process of converting electrically neutral atoms to electrically charged atoms through the addition or removal of orbital electrons Ionization
What charge does the ion have if the electron is removed +
what charge does the ion have if the electron is added -
Argon Ar
Barium Ba
Beryllium Be
Calcuim Ca
Cobalt Co
Gold Au
Helium He
Hydrogen H
Iodine I
Iron Fe
Lead Pb
Oxygen O
Radium Ra
Radon Rn
Silver Ag
Soduim Na
Sulfer S
Tungsten W
Uranium U
Arsenic As
Silicon Si
Gallium Ga
Six ways to bring about ionization X-ray bombardment of matter/Electrons stream bombardment of matter/Spontaneous breakdown of radioactive nuclides/Light ray bombardment of certain elements/chemical ionization/Thermionic emission
Explain x-ray bombardment Dislodging orbital electrons/ Photon interaction
Explain Electron stream bombardment Dislodging orbital electons/ x-ray tibe
Explain spontaneous breakdown of radioactive nuclides Decaying isotopes
Explain the light ray bombardment of certain elements light causes electrons to be emitted from certain metals-cesium and potassium
Explain chemical ionization takes place electrolysis/ NaCl with electrodes
Explain where thermoionic emission takes place Filament of the x-ray tube
energy emitted and transferred through matter(irradiated) radiation
removes electrons ionizing radiation
What are the types of ionizing radiation electromagnetic and particulate
Electromagnetic ionizing radiation has no mass, no charge and a constant velocity of speed
Particulate ionizing radiation has has mass, may or may not have a charge, velocity varies
x-rays and gamma rays are x and Y electromagnetic ionizing radiation
Alpha and beta rays are Particulate ionixing radiation (a) and (B)
What is the difference between the x-ray and the gamma ray The point of origin
Where does x-rays come from The shells of the atoms
Where does gamma radiation come from The nucleus of an atom
High spped electrons Beta particles
Generally negatively charged electrons(particulate radiation) Beta negatrons
Postively charged electrons (particulate radiation) Beta Positrons(they are small but penetrate deep)
Helium atom stripped of all its electrons alpha particles (these are large but dont travel fast)
What make up alpha particles 2 protons and 2 neutrons (double ionized helium atom)
Process which results in the transmutation of one element to another radioactivity (Uranium-Radium-Lead)
In the decay of radioisotopes the nuclues emitts alpha, gamma, and beta radiation which cause transformation
This is the most commonly occuring emission Beta emission
During beta emission what happens A beta electron is emitted with a neutrino, a neutron converts to a proton, and this increase the atomic number by one while the mass number stays the same
When the z number increases what happens the atom becomes an ion and must pull an electron to stabilize itself/ this changes the atom from one element to another
Beta(-1 charge) high speed electron that was attached to a neutron
Alpha(+2 Charge) two protons and two neutrons
Neutron(0 Charge) A neutron
This type of beta emission only involves what the negatively charged particles(beta negatrons)
Alpha emission is a Violent process and is a Helium nuclues
When Alpha is emitted the mass number ______ and the atomic number______ is reduced by 4 / is reduced by 2
Some___ are pure beta emotters and some are pure Alpha emitters but most all emit Gamma isotopes
Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers/ Atoms that have the same number of protons but different nuetrons Isotopes
Atoms with the same number of nucleons(mass Number) but different numbers of nuetrons and protons/ Atoms with the same Mass number but different atomic number isobars
Atoms with the same number of neutrons but different number of protons/ Different atomic numbers and different atomic mass numbers but constant value for A-Z isotones
Same atomic number and same atomic mass number isomers
isomers exist in different energy states because of differences in the nucleon arrangement
The ability of some nuclides to undergo spontaneous breakdown emitting ionizing radiation Radioactivity
When does radioactivity occur naturally and artifically
What are the naturally radioactive elements thorium/ uranium/ actinium
The period of time required for a quantity of radioactivity to decay to one half of its initial value Half-Life
What is the formula for Half-Life (T1/2)
Which of the following statements is true regarding our unterstanding of atomic structure Rutherford described the nucleus
In the rendering of the atom J.J. Thompson Uniform positive electrification was theorized
The periodic table represents the element in the order of atomic number
Approximately how many known elements are there 100
The only element that is not in any group of the periodic table is hydrogen
The horizontal rows in the periodic table are called peroids
As you move from left to right across the periodic table what happens to the number of outer shell electrons from one element to the next it increases by 1
Which group in the peroidic table contains elements that have only one electron in the outer shell Alkali metals
Which of the following is a traditional element Tungsten
Atoms with all three electrons in the outer shell have 3 valence electrons
In the periodic table of the the elements the group number identifies the number of electrons allowed in the outer shell
All of the following are elements except Steel
How many atoms are there in one molecule of sodium bicarbonate 6
Which of the following physists had a major part in decreasing the atom as we know it today Bohr
which of the following statements is true in 1 yr light can travel approximately 10^16m
The periodic chart of elements is attributed to dimitri mendeleev
Rutherford made what significant contribution to science description of the nuclear atom
Which of the following statements about atoms are true Most of the atoms are made of empty space
Which of the following statements about atoms are true Atoms that have the same atomic number are atoms with the same atomic element
If I129/53 is a stable, electrically neutral atom, how many neutrons are there 76
When oxygen (16/8 O) combines with atom of hydrogen (1/1 H) to form water the resultant molecule has a total of 10 protons
The atomic number of an atom is given by the number of protons plus neutrons
The atomic number is the number of protons
Isotopes are atoms of the same element
Electrons in the M-shell do not exceed 18 in number
12/6 C and 14/6 C have the same number of protons
The binding energy of an electron to a nucleus is higher for an L-shell electron than an M-shell electron
How many nucleons does 131/53 I have 131
The number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number
A neutron has approximately 1amu(mass) and no charge
How many different types of nucleons are there 2
Tungsten 184/74 W has how many neutrons 110
what is the maximum number of electrons permitted in the N-shell 32
Regarding atomic nomenclature atomic mass number is a whole number
the following atoms are all stable which has the highest k-shell electron binding energy Hg(mercury)
Alpha particle radiation that can not penetrate a sheet of paper
beta particle is a particle with a charge of -1.602x10(-19)C
Cyclotron is A particle used to Produce radioisotope
Gamma Rays are uncharged radiation : highly penetrating
Gold is A stable atom that can be made radioactive
Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Radioactive is a substance composed of all atoms with unstable nuclei
Radioactivity Spontaneous emission of energy or p[articles from unstable nuclei
Radioisotopes are usually produced by particles from common elements
Uranium is an atom that is naturally radioactive
Whena radioisotope emits beta particle a neutron is converted into a proton
Isotopes are atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers
Beta emission results in the gain of a proton
Alpha emission results in the loss of 4 amu
After beta emission the nucleus has increased in Z number by 1
Radioisotopws have what type of nuclei an unstable one
Electrons are arranged how in orbits around the nucleus
What is true about radioisiotopes regarding decay The percentage of atoms decaying per unit of time is constant
The difference between electrons and beta particles is their origin
In the air gamma rays do not normally travel farther than 10 m
What could be the most penetrating radiation 100 keV
The difference between the x-ray and gamma rays is their origin
X-rays have no mass no charge
What type of radiation is emitted from the outside of the nucleus x-rays
As compared with particulate radiation electromagnetic radiation has a higher electrostatic charge
Electromagnetic radiation ionizing radiation comes from inside and outside of the nuclei
x-rays and gamma rays are examples of electromagnetic radiation both have no electricostatic charge
what is an example of ionizing radiation energetic protons
what are the two principle classes of ionizing radiation particulate and electromagnetic
what is not ionizing radiation therapeutic ultrasound
Created by: atesta0824