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Psych for AP - Ch 13

Treatment of Psychological Disorders

eclectic approach an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy. (p. 606)
psychoanalysis Freud’s therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. (pp. 480, 606)
transference in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent). (p. 607)
resistance in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. (p. 607)
interpretation in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight. (p. 607)
psychotherapy treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth. (p. 606)
psychodynamic therapy therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight. (p. 608)
insight therapies a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses. (p. 609)
client-centered therapy a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.) (p. 609)
active listening empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy. (p. 609)
unconditional positive regard a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance. (pp. 491, 610)
behavior therapy therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. (p. 611)
counterconditioning a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning. (p. 611)
exposure therapies behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid. (p. 611)
systematic desensitization a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias. (p. 611)
virtual reality exposure therapy An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking. (p. 612)
aversive conditioning a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol). (p. 613)
token economy an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats. (p. 614)
cognitive-behavioral therapy a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior). (p. 616)
family therapy therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members. (p. 617)
regression toward the mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average. (p. 621)
meta-analysis a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies. (p. 621)
evidence-based practice clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences. (p. 623)
biomedical therapy prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system. (p. 628)
psychopharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior. (p. 628)
antipsychotic drugs drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder. (p. 629)
tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors. (p. 629)
antianxiety drugs drugs used to control anxiety and agitation. (p. 630)
antidepressant drugs drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters. (p. 630)
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient. (p. 632)
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity. (p. 634)
psychosurgery surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior. (p. 635)
lobotomy a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain. (p. 635)
resilience the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma. (p. 637)