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# image production 2

What are the two basic properties of X-Ray Beam? Quantity and Quality
What are the 3 factors of quantity? Amount, Intensity, and Exposure Rate
What are the 3 factors of quality? Strength, Penetrating Power, and Hardness
What the 4 factors that directly control intensity? mAs, kVp, SID/FFD, OID/OFD
1000 mAs= 1 As
1000 V = 1 kVp
What does SID and FFD mean? Source to image recptor distance and focal film distance
What does OID/OFD mean? Object to image receptor distance and object to film distance
mAs is ______ ______ to density directly proportional
The amount of blackness on the film Density
What ever you do to mAs you should you do to density? the same thing
The density produced on the film will be directly proportional to the exposure recieved by the film Reciprocity law
When you increase mAs what does that do to the electrons? increases the number of projectile electrons boiled off at the filament of the x-ray tube (thermionic emission)
What happens to the photons during thermionic emission? It increases the number of photons produced at the anode
A minimum change of at least___ in mAs is required to produce a significant increase or decrease in density 30%
If you were using 10 mAs and the film came out too light what would you do and what is your new mAs? you would increase you mAs by 30% which is 13 because 30% of 10 is 3 the add that to 10
If your film came out too dark when using a 20mAs what would you do? you would decrease 20mAs by 30% which would give you 14
mAs = mA x Time
what is the decimal and millisecond of 1/10 .10 and 100 1 divide by 10 is .10 then .10 multiplied by 1000 is 100
what does kVp stand for kilovoltage Peaks
What does the kVp affect bothe the wavelength and the frequency of the x-ray photon
As kVp is increased how is the wavelength and frequency affected? the wavelength of the photon is decreases and the frequency is increased
what is the controlling factor of contrast kVp
the percentage of the differences between the extreme blacks and whites on the radiograph Contrast
If you increase kVp what do you do to contrast decrease contrast
when you increase constrast what do you do to the inensity increase it
when you increase kVp what do you do to density increase density
what is the rule when increasing kVp or decreasing kVp does it do to density 15% rule if you increase by 15% you double density but if you subtract 15% you cut density in half
There is a minimum change of____ in kVp that is required before a visible change in density can be seen 8%
Pathological conditions that alter normal tissue in such a way to make it hard to penetrate (radiopaque) Additive disease
Pathological condition that alters normal tissue in such a way to make it easier to penetrate (radiolucent) destructive
Tell in the next 41 sildes whether they are additive or destructive and what do you do to mAs or kVp
Proliferative Arthritis Additive increase 50% mAs
Bone callus Additive increase 50% mAs
Pulmonary edema Additive increase 50% mAs
Lung Abscess Additive increase 50% mAs
Pleural Effusion Additive increase 35% mAs
Pericardial Effusion Additive increase 50% mAs
Ascites from Hepatic Cirrhosis Additive increase 50% mAs
Ascites from bowel perforation Additive increase 50% mAs
Morbid obesity Additive increase 10% kVp
Destructive arthritis Destructive decrease 10% kVp
Necrosis Destructive decrease 10% kVp
Osteopenia Destructive decrease 10% kVp
Osteomalacia Destructive decrease 10% kVp
Atrophy Destructive decrease 10% kVp
Bone Abscess Destructive decrease 10% kVp
Osteoporosis Destructive decrease 15% kVp
Emphysema Destructive decrease 15% kVp
Pneumothorax Destructive decrease 15% kVp
Ileus Destructive decrease 10% kVp
Emaciation Destructive decrease 10% kVp
How do you double the density of 80 kVp take 15% of 80 which is 12 the add 12 to 80 which gives you 92
How to you cut the density in halp when using 60kVp you take 15% of 60 which is 9 then subtract 60-9 which gives you 51
If you increase the SID what do you do to the intensity of the beam and why decrease it because of the divergence of the beam
There must be a ____ chang in distance to cause a visible change in density and require an adjustetment in technique 20%
SID and density are inversely proportional
The intensity or exposure rate of radiation is inversely propotional to the square of the distance from the point of source Inverse Square Law
if the orginal intensity was 200mR and the orginal distance was 40 what will the new intensity be if the new distance is 60 88.89mR
If the orginal mAs was 5 and the orginal distance is 40 what new mAs should be used to compensate for the distance changing to 80 20 mAs
What are the prime factors of the x-ray beam Density, Contrast, Detail, and distortion
The overall backness on the radiograph density
What is density compromised of Primary, Remnant, scatter/secondary radiation
Primary radiation that exits the patient. This is the image forming part of the beam Remnant Radiation
Primary radiation that has changed direction or has produced other radiation that travels in a different direction Scattered/ Secondary Radiation
What are the 4 body habitus Hyppersthenic, Sthenic, Hyposthenic, and Asthenic
Large body Frame Hypersthenic
Average size patient Sthenic
A thin patient Hyposthenic
Athin patient with a very small body frame Asthenic
What body habitus requires the highest exposure Hypersthenic
What body habitus requires the lowest exposure setting Asthenic
Appears lighter on the film radiopaque
Instrument used to measure the thickness of a body part Calipers
Where do you palce the caliper on the body where the central ray will enter the body
You shoul never______ the caliper squeeze
What is the rule in changes for the average thickness of the body tissue As a general rule, add 2Kvp for every centimeter increase in tissue thickness and subtract 2 kVp for every centimeter decrease in tissue thickness from the average size part
The intensity across the beam can vary as much as _____ 45%
The is caused by increased absorption of the primary beam by the heel of the anode/target Heel effect
This is more noticeable as the SID is lowered The heel effect
What does the smaller focal spot affect The larger field size will be and thegreater the heel effect
The cathode side of the tube should be placed where and why? over the thicker part of the anatomy to produce a more uniform density (dorsal spine and femur)
what is the photographic effect equation (mA)(time)(kVpsquare)/Distance in cm squared
1 inch equals how many centimeters 2.54
What is the equation for exposure multiply you answer for photographic effect by 15
If you increase mA what do you do to density increase density
If you increase exposue time what do you do to density icrease density
If you increase kV what do you do to density increase density
If you increase SID what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase OID what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase screen speed what do you do to density Increase density
If you increase film speed what do you do to density Increase density
If you increase grid factor what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase beam restrition what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase beam filtration what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase Collimation what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase the thickness of the part what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase Compression what do you do to density decrease density
If you decrease atom # what do you do to density decrease density
If you increase processsing time/temp what do you do to density increase density
If you increase the focal spot what do you do to density no effect
If you increase image receptor angulation what do you do to density no effect
Created by: atesta0824