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FTC4 WGU 2012

QuestionAnswer
What educator died in the Challenger explosion? Christa McAuliff
Who developed the concept of the "Open Classroom" Herbert R. Kohl
In what year was the "Open Classroom" concept developed by Herbert R. Kohl? 1969
In 1969, Herbert R. Kohl developed what concept? Open Classroom
What is the "Open Classroom" concept that was developed in 1969 by Herbert R. Kohl? The open classroom promotes student centered classrooms and active holistic learning.
What concept is this: Promotes student centered classrooms and active holistic learning. The Open Classroom concept developed by Herbert R. Kohl in 1969.
Which President signed the NCLB into law? George W. bush
"Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Educators" added momentum to the homeschooling movement. Who is it credited to? John Holt
John Holt is known for what? "Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Educators" added momentum to the homeschooling movement. 1981
"Mastering Teaching" proposes what? Direct instruction teaching model.
Who is credited with "Mastering Teaching" that proposed the direct instruction teaching model in 1982? Madelyn C. Hunter
Madelyn C Hunter is credited for what? With "Mastering Teaching" that proposed the direct instruction teaching model in 1982.
Became the President of Harvard college in 1640. Harvard was the first higher education institute in the colonies. The president teaches all the courses himself. Henry Dunster
Prominent English philosopher. Writes several foundational essays that mold American thoughts and practices in education: knowledge derived through experience, work ethic, and morality. John Locke
German Mennonite immigrant who publishes the first book about teaching in America in 1770 Christopher Dock
1734 Institutes the doctrine that the mind cand best be developed through mental discipline - tedious drill and repetition. The view shaped education throughout the 19th century & beyond. Christian Von Wolff
1743 helps establish the first "English Academy" in Philadelphia. Curriculum is both classical and modern (eventually becomes University of Pennsylvania) Benjamin Franklin
Proposed a two track educational system, with different tracks for "the laboring and the learned." Thomas Jefferson
Writes a spelling book, grammar book and reader from 1783 to 1785 due to dissatisfaction with current texts. His become widely used and have never been out of print. Noah Webster
Inventor of the blackboard (1801) James Pillans
founder of Hartford Female Seminary. founds more schools and becomes a prolific writer in her own right (sister to Harriet Beecher Stowe) Catherine Beecher
1836 Writes a series of readers "in Adam's fall we sinned all." The readers became some of the most influential textbooks of the 19th century. William Holmes McGuffey
Secretary of MA State Board of Education. A visionary proponent for public (free) schools. Worked tirelessly for increased public funding, teacher training, and a national education system. Horace Mann
1873 A pioneering teacher who established a women's college (Mount Holyoke) with curriculum similar to what was offered to male students and affordable tuitions. Mary Lyon
Establishes the first school for the mentally disabled in 1848 Hervey Wilbur
Humanitarian who hearing of the dissarray and desperate situation of schools in the south established the two million dollar Peabody Education Fund to aid educational efforts in the south in 1867. George Peabody
Inventor of the modern typewriter (1867) Christopher Sholes
1876 first president of the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feebleminded Persons, which later evolves into the America Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Edouard Segin
The first principal of a newly-opened school in Tuskegee, Alabama - later Tuskegee University. He was the foremost black educator of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Booker T Washington
Challenged the Separate Car Act in Louisiana, The supreme court ruling in Plessy vs Ferguson sets the stage for "separate but equall" policies in southern education. Homer Plessy
An African American educator founds Dayttona Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls in Daytona Beach 1904. Mary McLeod Bethune
Helped develop a measurement instrument to identify students with mental retardation with Theodore Simon in 1905. The Binet-Simon scale continues to be used today as an intelligence test. Alfred Binet
Psycologist and philosopher who desired to study children and see how they learned. Her findings greatly impacted education. She had strong American supporters in the figures of Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, and Helen Keler. 1911 Maria Montessori
1913 "Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning". He supports human learning as a process of habit formation and connections between stimuli and responses (Connectionisim) this becomes a force of thought in education in the 20th century. Edward Lee Thorndike
In 1916 leads a team at Stanford University in revising the Binet-Simon scale. Coins the term IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and makes the Stanford-Binet Scale a part of education. Louis M Terman
1916 "Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education" helps advance the progressive education movement seeking to make schools effective agents of democracy. John Dewey
Co-authors "Schools of To-morrow" with her father and then goes on to write several works on her own. Evelyn Dewey
President of the American Psycological Association & Army officer along with Lois Terman create Army Alpha & Beta tests to screen recruits going into WWI. These later become the foundation for Standardized Tests Robert Yerkes
1925 High School Biology teacher convicted of teaching evolution in the Scopes Monkey trials. John Scopes
"The Child's Conception of the World" published in 1929 places Piaget's theories of cognitive development into a sphere of influential thinkers in educational theory. Jean Piaget
1939 organizes a national convention on student transportation - results in the adoption of standards for the nations school buses, including the color yellow. Frank W Cyr
Signs the GI Bill sending hundreds of thousands of veterans to college and breaking the notion that college is only for the wealthy. FDR
Born 1 minute after midnight in 1946 becomes the first of the baby boomers, becoming the first of a generation that results in unprecedented school population growth and massive social change. Kathleen Casey WIlkens
1946 Mendez v Westminster declared separation of Mexican children in schooling unconstitutional laying the groundwork for Brown v Board of Education. Gonzalo Mendez
"Science and Human Behavior" introduces behaviorism and conditioning which widely influences American education. B.F. Skinner
Daughter of Oliver Brown who becamed named in Brown vs Board of Education the landmark Supreme Court decidion overuling Plessy vs Fergusun, a major landmark in the Civil Rights Movement (1954) Linda Brown
First African American to attend William Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans. She becomes a class of one as parents remove all Caucasian students from the school. 1960 Ruby Bridges
In 1962 "Thought and Language" provides the foundation for the principles of social constructivist theory. He lives only to 38 years of age. Best know for his "Zone of Proximal Development" Lev Vygotsky
1963 , who coined the term "learning disability" at a Chicago conference. Samuel A Kirk
1966 Author of the Coleman Report (The Equality of Educational Opportunity Study) concludes that African American children benefit from attending integrated schools and sets the stage for 'busing' to achieve desegregation. James S. Coleman
1966 "Toward a Theory of Instructions" popularize cognitive learning theory as an alternative to behaviorism. Who is credited for this? Jerome Bruner
1968 - What 10th grade biology teacher was caught inbetween district recommendations and the Scopes law. Susan Epperson
Epperson v Arkansas overturned what law? Scopes Law
1970 "Deschooling Society" sharply criticizes traditional schools and calls for the end of compulsory attendance. Who is credited for this? Ivan Illich
A type os final evaluation of student's achievement of an object, comprehensive measure of achievement, usually formal. Summative assessment
Type of evaluation to see if more instruction's needed; continuous feedback to teacher, test smaller units, monitor progress, usually informal. Formative Assessment
Body quadruples in weight and brain triples in weight: What age range? Birth - 2
Brain develops faster than any other part of body, up to 90% of its adult weight. What age range? Birth - 2
Neurons branch & grow into dense connective networks. What age range? Birth - 2
Child's body grows slower compared to other periods in life. What age range? 7 - 11
Increased heart & lung capacity give child endurance to improve performance in swimming/running. What age range? 7 - 11
Increases in hormonal levels result in a growth spurt. What age range? 12-18
Growth proceeds from the extremities to the torso & may be uneven. What age range? 12 - 18
When a child prematurely establishes identity, it is known as ______. foreclosure
Establishes identity where clear decisions are made is known as _________ _____________. Identity Achievement
Few commitments to goals/values is known as ________ _________. Identity Diffusion
Experiments w/goals/values & abandons those set by parents/society. Moratorium
Type of reasoning that provide complete support for the conclusion. Deductive Reasoning
Type of reasoning that provides some support for conclusion mixed w/observations. Inductive Reasoning
Condition caused by genetic and environmental factors: __________ Autism
During what age range does the brain triple in weight? Birth to age 2
___________ ____________ is caused by a chromosomal defect. 5% of these cases are linked to a genetic defect. Mental retardation
THe body quads in weight during which age range? Birth to age 2
Problems during pregnancy or during birth, may cause brain damage. This particular brain damage classifies students as _______ _________. learning disabled
Who is considered the Father of the Common School? Mann
Who created the Board of Education? Mann
What type of reasoning provides complete support for the conclusion? deductive reasoning
Most females start menstruation by what age? 13
Give 4 examples of formative assessments. Goal setting, teacher observations, students record keeping, self/peer assessment.
During what age range is there an increase in hormonal levels which results in a growth spurt? 12 to 18
___________ achievement is when children establish their own identity and clear decisions are made. identity achievement
What is identity achievement? When children establish their own identity and clear decisions are made.
What age group: Large and small muscle skills, language acquisition , prosocial behavior. Early childhood
What age group: Girls-4th grade growth spurt, Boys- 12 to 18 months behind girls; Memory and metacognitive skills; Self-concept, self-esteem, and peer relations. Middle childhood
What age group:Puberty usually takes 18 to 24 months to complete, up to 6 years; Hypothetical and deductive reasoning; Identity formation, social responsibility and intimacy. Adolescence
In what grade do most girls start puberty? How long does it take to complete? 4th grade; 18-24 months
What does the 1st Amendment grant us? Freedom of Speech/Religion. Teach only history of religion/not religion itself. Students can practice religion and have right to free speech as long as it is not disruptive or impedes on others rights.
Freedom of Speech/Religion. Teach only history of religion/not religion itself. Students can practice religion and have right to free speech as long as it is not disruptive or impedes on others rights is supported under what Amendment? 1st Amendment
What does the 4th Amendment grant us? No unreasonable search/seizure w/out warrant. Probable cause and nature of search required.
No unreasonable search/seizure w/out warrant Probable cause and nature of search required is supported under what Amendment? 4th Amendment
What does the 8th Amendment grant us? No excessive bail or cruel/unusual punishment. Punishment must meet the crime. It is ok to paddle in some states.
No excessive bail or cruel/unusual punishment. Punishment must meet the crime. It is ok to paddle in somes states. What Amendment supports this? 8th Amendment
What does the 12th Amendment grant us? Limits the power of the Federal government to those only specified by Constitution. Allows states to make their own rules.
Limits the power of the Federal government to those only specified by Constitution. Allows states to make their own rules. This is supported by what Amendment? 12th Amendment
What does this describe? Never experienced identity crisis. Estabished choices basaed on what was taught; too fixed and rigid to serve as a foundation for meeting life's future identity crisis. Foreclosure
What is foreclosure? Never experienced identity crisis. Estabished choices basaed on what was taught; too fixed and rigid to serve as a foundation for meeting life's future identity crisis.
What does this describe? Found no occupational direction nor an ideological committment of any kind and made little progress toward it. Unable to resolve identity crisis. Identity diffusion
What is moratorium? Exploring differet ideas for work and believes but no definite choice made yet; In middle of identity crisis and currently examining choices.
What does this describe: Exploring differet ideas for work and believes but no definite choice made yet; In middle of identity crisis and currently examining choices. Moratorium
What does this describe: Made own conclusions; Convinced the decisions were made by own self and reflect their own true nature and deep inner commitments. Identity Achievement
What is identity achievement? When children come to their own conclusions. They are convinced that their decisions were made by their own self. They feel their actions reflect their own true nature and deep inner commitments.
What are Dame Schools? Schools offered offered by female teachers usually in their home.
Schools offered offered by female teachers usually in their home are known as __________ _____________. Dame Schools
What were schools for boys that provided more education then Dame schools called? They were funded by the community and were mostly in found New England; first high school Latin Grammar Schools
What were Latin Grammar Schools? Schools for boys that provided more education then Dame schools. Funded by community, mostly in New England; first high school
___________ were secondary schools that had broader education than Latin Grammar schools; Ben Franklin started; no religion taught. Academies
What were Academies? Secondary schools had broader education than Latin Grammar schools; Ben Franklin started; no religtion taught.
Who was the founder of "Academies"? Ben Franklin
What was the common school movement? Free, tax-supported, non-religious schools for boys and girls.
Support for free, tax-supported, non-religious schools for boys and girls was known as what movement? Common School Movement
Two year schools for men and women to become teachers were called _______ ___________. Normal Schools
What were Normal Schools? Two year schools for men and women to become teachers.
What is Epistemology? Epistemology is the study of how we come to know what we know.
What is Metaphysics/Ontology? The study of what we know.
The study of what we know is called _______________________. Metaphysics/Ontology
What is axiology? Axiology is the study of what we know.
_____________ examines processes of deriving valid conclusions from basic principles. logic
What type of reasoning uses facts to reach conclusions. Deductive reasoning
What is deductive reasoning? Deductive reasoning uses facts to reach conclusions.
What type of reasoning uses facts to reach conclusions? Inductive reasoning uses past experiences to create conclusions.
What is Idealism?" "Perfect world": Ideas are the only realiable form of reality; Logical thinkers - math/science/literature; Considered elitist and no feelings involved.
This is known as what? "Perfect world": Ideas are the only realiable form of reality; Logical thinkers - math/science/literature; Considered elitist and no feelings involved. Idealism
What is this known as? "Universal order and Absolute truth" Science and tech heavy-don't consider emotions. Realism
What is realism? "Universal order and Absolute truth" Science and tech heavy-don't consider emotions.
What is pragmatism? Truth is whatever works; John Dewey; Practical, truth changes; It is personal and relative.
What is this? Truth is whatever works; John Dewey; Practical, truth changes; It is personal and relative. Pragmatism
What does this describe? Humanity is not part of an orderly universe, rather we create our own universe; No standards, emphasis on individual. Existentialism
What type of test is described? Describes performance in terms of relative position, covers a large amount of material w/just a few questions from each area, emphasis is placed on where each student scores compared to the other students. Difficult to Avg. Norm-referenced test
Describe a norm-referenced test. A norm-referenced test describes performance in terms of relative position, covers a large amount of material w/just a few questions from each area, emphasis is placed on where each student scores compared to the other students. Difficult to Avg.
Describe a criterion-referenced test. A criterion-referenced test describes specific performance that was demonstrated (types 40 wpm); Focuses on specific area and has many questions to cover the topic; Emphasis on what the student knows; Tests questions are easy, medium and hard.
What is measurement of maximum performance? It determines a person's developed abilities or achievements (What can someone do when they put their mind to it?) ie...aptitude test, achievement test.
What type of of assessment determines a person's developed abilities or achievements (What can someone do when they put their mind to it?) ie...aptitude test, achievement test. measurement of maximum performance
What type of test predicts success in future learning? An aptitude test
What does an aptitude test do? Predicts success in future learning
What does an achievement test do? An achievement test measures success in past learning.
What test measures success in past learning? An achievement test measures success in past learning.
What type of test is described: Multiple choice, true/false, matching. It is easy to grade. A lot of material is covered. Fixed Choice Test
Describe a Fixed Coice Test. What type of test is described: Multiple choice, true/false, matching. It is easy to grade. A lot of material is covered.
Describe a Complex-Performance Assessment. Essay questions, open ended math problems. Students solve the problems and demonstrate what they actually know.
What type of test does this describe: Essay questions, open ended math problems. Students solve the problems and demonstrate what they actually know. Complex-Performance Assessment
What type of assessment determines student performance at the beginning of instruction? Placement assessment
What does a placement assessment do? Determines student performance at beginning of instruction
What does a formative assessment do? Monitor learning progress during instruction; Not typically used for grading purposes.
What assessment does this describe: Monitor learning progress during instruction; Not typically used for grading purposes. formative assessment
What assessment is a specialized procedure used to determine cause of persistent learning problems and determine plan of action? Diagnostic Assessment
Describe a Diagnostic Assessment. A diagnostic assessment is a specialized procedure used to determine cause of persistent learning problems and determine plan of action.
Describe a summative assessment. An assessment that determines extent to which instructional goals have been achieved and used primarily for course grades or certifying student mastery.
What type of an assessment does this describe: An assessment that determines extent to which instructional goals have been achieved and used primarily for course grades or certifying student mastery. Summative assessment
Who demanded more money for private schools; His debate for funds helped other side support secularization of public schools. John Joseph Hughes
What did John Joseph Hughes do? John Joseph Hughes demanded more money for private schools; His debate for funds helped other side support secularization of public schools.
Who was a socialist who supported education unions, leader in standards movement, argued social promotion offers no incentives for children to excel. Albert Shanker
What did Albert Shanker do? Albert Shanker was socialist who supported education unions, leader in standards movement, argued social promotion offers no incentives for children to excel.
Who is this credited to: No more drills/recite method; Teach based on child's physical & psychological development as well as world outside the classroom. John Dewy
What did John Dewy do? No more drills/recite method; Teach based on child's physical & psychological development as well as world outside the classroom.
Who fought for equal treatment for Chicano students; Spanish teachers, curriculum, text books. Jose Angel Gutierrez
What did Jose Angel Gutierrez do? Fought for equal treatment for Chicano students; Spanish teachers, curriculum, text books.
Who applied industrial management theory to school leadership; rise to modern school adminstration; believed in state control of education rather than parents, business & local churches involvement. Ellwood Cubberley
What did Ellwood Cubberley do? Applied industrial management theory to school leadership; rise to modern school adminstration; believed in state control of education rather than parents, business & local churches involvement.
What did Deborah Meier do? Revitalized public schools in E Harlem; critic of standardized test, emphasis on active learning, democratic community, teachers greater autonomy, parents more voice, family involvement.
Who revitalized public schools in E Harlem; critic of standardized test, emphasis on active learning, democratic community, teachers greater autonomy, parents more voice, family involvement. Deborah Meier
Who was Feminist; started Hartford Female Seminary; believed education would prepare women for roles of responsibility and should be trailed as teachers. Catherine Beecher
What did Catherine Beecher do? Feminist; started Hartford Female Seminary; believed education would prepare women for roles of responsibility and should be trailed as teachers.
Of what importance was Linda Brown Thompson? Brown v Board of Ed of Topeka Kansas; 1 of 13 students in lawsuit disputing seperate but equal.
What was Brown vs Board of Education about? Separate but equal
Who created 1st State Board of Education; established teacher training, 6 mo school year, support for more funding; major emphasis on moral training, standardization, class drills; public ed bring wealth and respect for private prop. Horace Mann
What did Horace Mann do? Created 1st State Board of Education; established teacher training, 6 mo school year, support for more funding; major emphasis on moral training, standardization, class drills; public ed bring wealth and respect for private prop.
Who was the founder of Tuskegee Institute, a leading advocate for education & economic impact for Af. Americans and an advocate for vocational tech. Booker T. Washington
What is Booker T. Washington known for in education? Founder Tuskegee Institute, leading advocate for education & economic impact for Af. Am; advocate for vocational tech.
Who wanted a back to basics curriculum w/ essential knowledge; critics claim no multicultural and teach what to think not how to think. Ed Hirsch Jr.
What is the Zone of Proximal Development? What a child can do by him/herself immediately above their current ability.
What did Jean Piaget believe? 1)Most influential developmental psy in history explored why and how mental abilities change over time 2) Knowledge comes from action 3) All children born w/innate tendency to interact w/and make sense of environment 4) Pass thru all steps w/out skip.
What are the four levels of development according to Piaget? Development proceeds learning A) Sensorimotor (Birth - 2 years) B) Preoperational (2 - 7) C) Concrete Operational (7-11) D) Formal Operational (11-Adult)
What developmental stage: Use reflexes to learn; by end can think and plan; know object still there if hidden; use symbols to rep things in mind. Sensorimotor
What developmental stage: Egocentric; thinking & language develop @ fast rate but still primitive thinking; pay attention but only one aspect of object; see beginning & end, not middle; can't change direction of thinking. pre-operational
Describe the sensorimotor stage. Use reflexes to learn; by end can think and plan; know object still there if hidden; use symbols to rep things in mind.
Describe the pre-operational stage. Egocentric; thinking & language develop @ fast rate but still primitive thinking; pay attention but only one aspect of object; see beginning & end, not middle; can't change direction of thinking.
Describe the concrete operational stage. Abstract difficult; form concepts, see relationships; solve problems only if familiar; reversible thinking; arrange objects in sequential order; see others point of view.
What developmental stage is this: Abstract difficult; form concepts, see relationships; solve problems only if familiar; reversible thinking; arrange objects in sequential order; see others point of view. concrete operational
Describe the formal operational stage. Deal w/hypothetical situations, can reason situations never experienced; cognitive development comes to close and intellectual development continues; can see abstract.
What stage does this describe: Deal w/hypothetical situations, can reason situations never experienced; cognitive development comes to close and intellectual development continues; can see abstract. formal operational stage
What are intrinsic reinforcers? Intrinsic reinforcers are behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward.
What does this describe: Behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward. intrinsic reinforcers
What does this describe: Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in without them. extrinsic reinforcers
What are extrinsic reinforcers? Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in without them.
What are Maslow's Hierachy of Needs? Deficiency Needs - Physiological Needs; Safety; Belongingness & love; Esteem Growth Needs - Need to know and understand; Aesthetic need; self-actualization need.
Describe: Public Law 94-142 Individuals w/Disabilities Education Act "Bill of Rights" for children w/exceptionalities 1)Free, appropriate public education 2) Least restrictive environment 3) IEP 4) Procedural due process 5) Nondiscriminatory assessment 6) Parental participation required.
Describe: Public Law 99-457 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendment to PL 94-142 Requires preschoolers w/special needs 3-5 yrs to receive free/appropriate education. Title I created Handicapped Infants & Toddlers Program to help infants to 2 yr old-voluntary. Individual Family Service Plan required.
Describe: Public Law 101-476 Individuals w/Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Ind Transition Plan by 16 yrs Included social work & rehab counseling Autism & traumatic brain injury included Repealed states immunity from lawsuits violating IDEA.
Describe: Public Law 105-77 Changes to discipline requirements. IEP changes, Transition planning starts at 14 Mediation added for disputes More categories added More freedom given for evaluating students
Describe: Public Law 93-112 Rehabilitation Act Civil rights law First law aimed at protecting children/adults against discrimination due to disability.
What Civil Rights law first aimed at protecting children/adults against discrimination due to disability. Public Law 93-112 Rehabilitation Act
Describe: Public Law 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act Provides for equal rights in private and public sector.
Describe: Public Law 107-110 No Child Left Behind Act All students will show proficiency in math, reading and science. Teachers will be highly qualified.
Instruction offered by individual female teachers,usually in their homes. taught basics to read and write. These schools were known as ___________ _________________. Dame Schools
These schools were town schools, usually found in New England Governed by an elected board and funded by local & state aid. In New England founded by puritans to train sons to read & write. Latin Grammer Schools
What were church sponsored schools for their members children called? Religious Schools
Schools for poor children of the urban areas were called _________ ___________. Charity Schools
This type of school was the first to provided secondary education & offered a broader curriculun then Latin Grammer schools.Trained students to go to University or to have a job or career. Relied on tuition & recieved public funding. Academies
Public schools that were chartered by the state were once called __________ or ___________ schools. Private or Quasi schools
When was the common school movement? 1820-1865
Who led the Common School Movement? Horace Mann.
What does this describe: (1820-1865) led by Horace Mann. Early version of public schools. Improved quality of life & broke away from schools run by church's. Common School Movement
What were Normal Schools? In the early 1800's. Schools for teacher training.
What was the Old Deluder Satan Act? The first law in regards to education. Towns of 50 or more had to have a school & teacher.
What are the limitations of laws? 1) Laws are purposefully general. 2) Laws are created in response to past problems and may not fit future circumstances.
Tinker v Des Moines Community School District, 1969 Landmark decision on students freedom of expression (black armbands worn in protest of the Vietnam Military Action).
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, 1986 Ruled that schools may limit offensive, lewd and indecent speech.
What law ruled that schools may limit offensive, lewd and indecent speech. Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, 1986
Describe the Buckley Amendment. (FERPA)Mandates that schools must make student records open to the parents, and prevents disclosure of information to third parties
What Amendment is this known as: (FERPA)Mandates that schools must make student records open to the parents, and prevents disclosure of information to third parties Buckley Amendment
What is a collection of policies and procedures designed to overcome past racial, ethnic, gender, and disability discrimination. Affirmative Action
Describe Affirmative Action. A collection of policies and procedures designed to overcome past racial, ethnic, gender, and disability discrimination.
What is negligence? A breach of ones legal duty to protect others from unreasonable risks of harm.
A breach of ones legal duty to protect others from unreasonable risks of harm is known as __________________. Negligence
Why should teachers use multiple measure when assessing students? Measurement of performance and knowledge require different testing procedures.
Since measurement of performance and knowledge require different testing procedures how should a teacher assess a student? By using multiple measures.
What measurement term refers to the degree to which a test messures what it is designed to test? Validity
What is validity? A measurement term that refers to the degree to which a test messures what it is designed to test?
What is the most critical problem that can result from standardized achievement test accommodations? Accomodation changes the nature of the measurement.
What is a common benefit of standardized achievement tests? Scores are comparable across populations.
What was Eraut's major criticism of using reflection? Sometimes decisions need to be made quickly and there is not time for reflection.
Created by: dcooney