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Psych for AP - Ch 8

Motivation, Emotions and Stress

motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. (p. 328)
instinct a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. (p. 328)
drive-reduction theory the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. (p. 329)
homeostasis a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. (p. 329)
incentive a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior. (p. 329)
hierarchy of needs Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (p. 330)
glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger. (p. 333)
set point the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. (p. 335)
basal metabolic rate the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure. (p. 335)
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve. (p. 337)
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. (p. 337)
binge-eating disorder significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa. (p. 337)
sexual response cycle the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. (p. 349)
refractory period a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. (p. 349)
estrogens sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity. (p. 350)
testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones. Both m and f have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. (pp. 350, 438)
sexual orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation). (p. 354)
emotion a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience. (p. 366)
James-Lange theory the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. (p. 367)
Cannon-Bard theory the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion. (p. 367)
two-factor theory the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal. (p. 367)
polygraph a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes). (p. 372)
facial feedback the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness. (p. 383)
catharsis emotional release. The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges. (p. 388)
feel-good, do-good phenomenon people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood. (p. 390)
well-being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life. (p. 390)
adaptation-level phenomenon our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience. (p. 394)
relative deprivation the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves. (p. 394)
behavioral medicine an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease. (p. 397)
health psychology a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine. (p. 397)
stress the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging. (p. 397)
general adaptation syndrome (GAS) Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases—alarm, resistance, exhaustion. (p. 399)
coronary heart disease the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries. (p. 401)
Type A Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. (p. 402)
Type B Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people. (p. 402)
psychophysiological illness literally, “mind-body” illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches. (p. 403)
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health. (p. 403)
lymphocytes the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells,