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Chapter two final

Kilovoltage(kV) controls the energy(penetrating power) of the x-ray beam
Milliamperage(mA) controls the quantity or number of x-ray produced
Exposure time (ms) controls duration of the exposure usually expressed in milliseconds
Image quality factors for radiograph images Density, Contrast, Resolution and Distortion
Density amount of "blackness" on the produced radiograph
Controlling Factors of Density mA's are main and SID is second
Adjusting Film density mA's of 25% to 30% to make visual change
Anode Heel affect cathode end to thicker part of patient except in chest xrays
Contrast the difference in density between adjacent areas of radio graphic image
Controlling Factors of Contrast kV higher kV produces lower contrast (less shades of grey) 15% increase in kV will increase film density similar to doubling mA's
Grids used for body parts 10 com or more
off center grid the CR is not centered along the center of the axis of the grid
Off level grid CR and grid are not in equal angles
off focus grid must be used a certain SID to prevent grid cut off
Up side down grid grid put in up side down
Resolution recorded sharpness on the image
Controlling Factors focal spot size, SID and object image receptor distance
Distortion misrepresentation of object size or shape
Controlling Factors for distortion SID,OID object image receptor alignment and Central ray alignment
Digital Imaging a numeric representation of the x-ray intensities that are transmitted to the patient
Exposure Factors for Digital Imaging mA's, kV's
Image Quality Factors for Digital Brightness, Contrast, Resolution, Distortion,Exposure index, Noise
Brightness the intensity of a light that represents the individual images on a monitor =(similar to density)
Contrast in DI the difference in brightness light and dark areas of an image
Contrast Resolution ability of an imaging system to distinguish between similar tissue
Controlling Factors for Brightness the screen
pixels a single shade of grey
bit depth the greater the contrast resolution the greater the bit depth
Pixel size acquisition pixel size-minimum size (important one) display pixel size-minimum that can be displayed on monitor
Resolution in DI the recorded sharpness or details of a structure
Controlling Factors of Resolution in DI display matrix, pixel size
Distortion misrepresentation of object size or shape as projected onto radiographic recording media
Exposure index a numeric value that is Representative of the exposure that the IR has received
"s" number inversely proportional to radiation that strikes the IR
exposure index is directly proportional to the radiation that strikes the IR
Noise a random disturbance that obscures or reduces clarity
SNR Signal-to-noise ratio high good low bad
Computed Radiology similar to conventional film screen but using digital
Collimation used to reduce patient dose and scatter
30% Rule at least 30% of IR must be exposed
PACS picture archiving communication systems
DICOM Digital imaging Communication in Medicine
ALARA As low as reasonably achievable
Roentgen (R) radiation exposure in the air measured on rem( radiation protection) rads (patient dose)
Rads patient dose of radiation
occupational recommendations 5 rem (50 mSv) of whole body effective dose per year
general public *frequent exposure*.1 ren (1 mSv) per year not frequent .5 rem (5mSv)
Pregnant technologist .05 rem (.5 mSv) per month .5 rem (5 mSv) for gestation period
ALARA principles Always wear protection, restraining devices, collimation, proper technique *time distance and shielding*
SEE Skin entrance exposure
Effective dose high male-AP unshielded hip Female-AP thoracic spin w/o breast shields
Floro limit 10 R/min
Accurate Collimation limiting the size and shape of the x-ray beam to only clinical intrest
Created by: kelmccauley