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Skull & Sinus

QuestionAnswer
How many bones make up the cranium? 8
The cranial bones are ridgedly jointed together by articulations called? sutures
Which skull suture is found between the frontal and parietal bones? coronal
What is the smooth area above and between the eyebrows? glabella
The zygomatic arches are a part of which cranial bones? temporal bone
Which bone in the skull contains the auditory organs and the organs of hearing? temporal bone
The largest and most dense bone in the face is the ____. mandible
Which skull type is considered NARROW from side to side? dolichocephalic
What is the name of the middle part of the ear? tympanic membrane
What is located in the internal ear? semi-circular canals
What should be seen superimposed on a lateral projection of the skull? Orbital Roofs, TMJ's and EAM
Which method of examining the skull will demonstrate the petrous ridges in the orbits, the ethmoid and frontal sinuses, and the crista galli? Caldwell
Which of the following is PERPENDICULAR to the plane of the IR for a Caldwell projection of the skull? OML
Often a patient cannot be turned into the prone position for a PA axial projection of the skull (Caldwell), What CR angle could be used if the AP axial projection is used instead? 15* Cephalad
Which of the lines is placed PERPENDICULAR to the IR for the AP axial (Towne) projection? IOML
If the IOML is placed PERPENDICULAR to the IR during and AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull, how much should the CR be angled? 37*
What is clearly demonstrated within the foramen magnum during an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull? dorsum sellae and posterior clinoid processes
What is the CR angulation for demonstration of the entire foramen magnum during an AP axial (Towne) projection? 40-60* caudal
Which methods will clearly demonstrate the petrous ridges, foramen magnum, dorsum sellae, and posterior clinoid processes? Haas & Schuller
What is the average CR angle for the PA axial (Haas) projection of the skull? 25* cephalad
Which line should be placed PARALLEL to the IR for the SMV projection? IOML
In what projection are the mastoid processes, spehnoid sinuses, and the carotid canals clearly demonstrated? SMV
Name the bones that make up the calvarium: frontal, parietal(2) and occipital
The six areas of incomplete ossification in a newborns skull are called the _____. fontanels
Which of the foramen lie in the sphenoid bone? optic foramen and foramina rotundum
The base of the anterior portion of the OCCIPITAL BONE contains 2 large openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through. These 2 openings are called: jugular foramen
Which facial bone contains a foramen through which the tear duct passes? lacrimal bone
Which 2 bones form the roof of the mouth? Maxillae and palatine
Which parts of the patient's face touch the IR for the PA axial (Caldwell) projection? forehead and nose
Which of the following is not one of the essential projection methods of demonstrating the mastoid processes? Mayer
What type of joint is the TMJ? synovial - hinge and gliding
Which cranial bone contains the sella turcica? Sphenoid
For the lateral projection of the facial bones the CR will enter___. halfway between outer canthus and EAM
What is another name for the parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones? Waters
For the waters view, the OML should be placed at what angle to the IR? 37*
The parietoacanthial projection (Waters view) of the facial bones is often modified so that there is less angulation of the facial bones. For this modification, the OML is adjusted to what degree? 55*
What positioning line is placed PERPENDICULAR to the IR for the acanthioparietal projection (reverse Waters) of the facial bones? MML
On which of the following projections will BOTH zygomatic arches be demonstrated? 1.Tangental 2.SMV 3.AP axial SMV and Towne (AP Axial)
Which of the following are true regarding the lateral projection of the nasal bones? 1. occlusal IR may be used 2. both sides are done for comparison 3.the IPL is perpendicular to the tabletop 1, 2 and 3
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arches, the head is positioned so that MSP is ____. 15* towards the examined side
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arches, the TOP OF THE HEAD is TILTED how many degrees? 15* away from the examined side
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arches, the CR is directed PERP to the _____: IOML
What is the CR angulation for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches? 30* caudad
Which of the following is centered to the IR for the PA projection of the mandibular rami? tip of nose
What is the CR angulation for the axiolateral oblique projection of the mandible? 25* cephalad
What is the CR angulation for the axiolateral oblique projection of the TMJs? 15* caudad
At what level will the CR be place for the tangential projection of the zygomatic arches? at a level 1" posterior to outer canthus
Which projections would demonstrate the ethmoidal sinuses? Lateral, SMV and PA Axial (caldwell)
Which of the sinuses is developed at birth and visible radiographically? Maxillary
Where are the petrous ridges seen on a parietoacanthial (Waters) radiograph? inferior to the floor of the maxillary sinuses
The largest sinus is the ___ maxillary
Which sinus is located directly below the sella turcica? sphenoidal
Which sinus group is located between the vertical plates of the frontal bone? frontal
Which sinus group is located within the lateral masses of labyriths? ethmoidal
When performing sinus x-rays the patient must always be in the upright to _______: demonstrate fluid levels
For a lateral projection of the paranasal sinuses the CR is directed _____: 1" posterior to outer canthus
Which projection will best demonstrate the frontal sinuses? PA caldwell
Which sinus group is projected through the open mouth on the open-mouth modification of the Waters method? sphenoidal sinus
For the open-mouth Waters method, the CR should exit the _____: the open mouth
Which sinus is located in the frontal bone? frontal sinus
Which sinus is located just lateral to the nose? maxillary
Which sinus is located inferior to the frontal sinus? ethmoidal
Which of the following should be clearly demonstrated on a LATERAL projection of the paranasal sinuses? 1. all 4 sinus groups 2.superimposed orbital roofs 3.superimposed mandibular rami 1,2 and 3
Which projections will best demonstrate the frontal and anterior ethmoidal sinuses? Caldwell only
What is prjected below the maxillary sinuses for the Waters method of the sinuses? Petrous ridges
The Waters method of the sinuses requires the OML to be placed how many degrees from the plane of the IR? 37*
What sinus projection would best demonstrate the maxillary sinuses? waters view
To successfully demonstrate the ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses on the SMV projection, which of the following must occur: 1.patient must be recumbent 2.IOML is parallel to IR 3.CR must be perp to IOML and horizontal IOML is // to IR and CR must be perp to IOML and horizontal
At which level should the CR enter the base of he skull for the SMV projection of the sinuses? 3/4" post to EAM
Which projections will demonstrate the ethmoidal sinuses? lateral, caldwell and SMV
The respiration phase for all projections of the facial bones and sinuses is: suspend
The two ethmoidal sinuses are located within which bone? ethmoid
Where is the IR centered for the Waters projection of the sinuses? acanthion
Where are the petrous ridges seen on a Waters image? below maxillary sinuses
The CR angle for a Caldwell projection of the sinuses is ____. 15* caudad
Which reference line is positioned horizontal to ensure proper extension of the head during a lateral projection of the sinuses? IOML
Which of the following foramina are demonstrated in the orbit on a Waters image? rotundum
How many bones make up the face? 14
Which bones has condyles that articulate with the atalas of the C spine? occipital
The cranial bone that provides a depression to house the pituitary gland is the ______ bone. sphenoid
The radiographically significant landmark that is the midpont of the ant nasal spine is the _____. acanthion
Name the three auditory ossicles: incus, stapes, malleus
The vestibulocochlear organ of hearning is the organ of: hearning and balance
Which of the following are contained on the floor of the cranium? ethmoid, sphenoid and temporal
Is the maxillae a cranial or facial bone? facial
Which bones contain air sinuses? ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid
The thickest and densest portion in the cranium in the: petrous portion of the temporal bone
The large aperature in the occipital bone, through which the medulla oblangata and the spinal cord exit is the: foramen magnum
On which cranial bone is the cribiform plate located? ethmoid
On which cranial bone is the crista galli located? ethmoid
On which cranial bone is the perpendicular plate located? ethmoid
Which cranial bone has both greater and lesse wings? sphenoid
With which cranial bone does the 1st cervical vertebra articulate? occipital
The pterygoid processes project inferiorly from which cranial bone? sphenoid
What bone forms 3/4 of the roof of the mouth? maxilla
What two bones contain alveolar processes? mandible and maxillary
The vertical portions of this bone extend upward between the maxillae and pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone in the posterior nasal cavity? palatine
What long, narrow and very thin bones extend diagonally and inferiorly from lateral walls of nasal cavity at its lower third? inferior nasal conchae
What are the two smallest bones of the skull that are located in the anterior part of the medial walls of orbits between labyrinth of ethmoid and maxilla called? lacrimal
What forms part of the lateral walls and most of the floor of the nasal cavity? maxilla
What is the thin plate fo bone situated in MSP of floor of nasal cavity? Vomer
What is the only bone in the body that does not articulate with another bone? Hyoid