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Pharmacology

Vegas

QuestionAnswer
digoxin (Lanoxin) class: anti-___, side effect ___ or ___ vision dysrhythmic, blurred, double
guaifenesin can cause ___ drowsiness
estrogen (Premarin), side effects - an ↑ risk of ___, shortness of breath, severe ___, vomiting, sudden acute pain in legs/___/chest/___ thromboembolism, headache, calves, abdomen
doxepin (Sinequan) is a anticholinergic who's side effects include urinary ___, constipation, drying of ___ or oral secretions, ↑ ___ rate retention, nasal, heart
albuterol (Proventil) is a sympathomimetic or an ___ ___ ___, contraindicated in use with ___ because it can ↑ albuterol’s action & lead to hypertension crisis, β-blockers can inhibit therapeutic effects adrenergic beta-2 agonist, MAOIs
Levothryoxine (T4) is used to treat ___ r/t disfunction of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid hypothyroidism
cephalosporins (Keflex) - allergy = precaution for taking ___ penicillins
alpha-blockers also called _-___-___ α-adrenergic-antagonists
_-___ used in treatment of Raynaud's, scleroderma, anxiety, panic, hypertension (in conjunction with diuretics when other treatments are ineffective), used to treat symptoms of BPH α-blockers
___ (Imitrex) use when migraine symptoms appear & again in (how long) one ___ if Sx persist sumatriptan, hour
narcan is an opioid ___, its therapeutic action is improvement of ___ rate antagonist, respiratory
baclofen’s (Lioresal) therapeutic action is a ↓ in frequency & severity of muscle ___ spasms
erythromycin (Erythrocin), a ___ (class), can cause ___ toxicity macrolide, liver
Sodium 135 - 145
Calcium 8.5 - 10.5
Cl 100 - 106
Glucose 70 - 110
BUN (blood urea nitrogen) 5 - 20
Albumin 3.4 - 5
Potassium 3.5 - 5
Protein 6 - 8
Magnesium 1.6 - 2.6
Total cholesterol <200
LDL 100 - 130
HDL 60mg/dL and above
Triglycerides <150
blood pH 7.35 - 7.45
pCO2; below 35 is ___, above 45 is ___ alkalotic, acidic
pO2 75 - 100 mm Hg
HCO3; below 22 is ___, above 26 is ___ acidotic, alkalotic
SaO2 and pulse ox; between ___% and ___% 94 - 100%
urine pH 4.5 - 8
urine specific gravity 1.002 to 1.03
urine ketones, protein, glucose negative
RBCs male 4.5 - 6 million/uL
RBCs female 4 - 5 million/uL
Hb (hemoglobin) male 14 - 18 gm/dL
Hb (hemoglobin) female 12 - 16 gm/dL
Hct male ___% to ___% 42% - 54%
Hct female ___% to ___% 38% - 46%
platelet count 150,000 - 400,000
WBC count 4,500 - 11,000
HbA1c <7
1gr = ___ mg 60
___mL = 1 tsp 5
___mL = 1 tbsp 15
1 cup = ___mL 240
1 cup = ___ oz 8
___ mL = 1 oz 30
1 pint = ___ cups 2
normal PT (prothrombin time) ___ to ___ seconds 10 to 12
therapeutic level of digoxin 0.5 - 2.0
target range for INR in anticoagulant use (e.g. warfarin) is 2 to 3
phenobarbital sodium (Luminal), used in ___ therapy, assess for respiratory ___ and sedation. Administering IV < ___mg/min, avoid extravasation (alkaline → skin damage) anticonvulsant, depression, 50
spironolactone (Aldactone), a ___-___ ___, avoid foods with ↑ K (salt substitutes) potassium sparing diuretic
chloroquine phosphate (Aralen), ___ prevention, take weekly starting 1 week before departure, continue for 4 weeks after return malaria
heparin (anticoagulant), use with ___ for acute MI alteplase
clopidogrel (Plavix), long-term use, reduces risk of ___ with atherosclerosis & recent MI or CVA clotting
alteplase (Activase) is an ___, used in acute MI or CVA, has a short half-life antithrombolytic
methylphenidate (Concerta) use ___, precaution - avoid ___ use narcolepsy, caffeine
lithium levels, early signs of toxicity at < ___ mEq/L, severe toxicity > ___ mEq/L, therapeutic range is ___ mEq/L to ___ mEq/L 1.5, 2.5, 0.8, 1.2
niacin causes ___, facial flushing vasodilation
sympathomimetics mimic sympathetic nervous system, leads ___ in blood pressure increase
beta-adrenergic blockers block SNS → ↓___ ___, ↓___ ___, ↓ arterial pressure, ↓ CO blood pressure, heart rate
diphenoxylate HCl (Lomotil), side effect - ___ ___ (from added atroprine to discourage abuse) dry mouth
insulin – peak, NPH ___-___ hours 6-12
antibiotic side effect - ↑ risk for ___ infection fungal
atropine used in severe symptomatic ___ bradycardia
verapamil (Calan) use ↓ ___ ___ heart rate
phenytoin (Dilantin) therapeutic level is ___ to ___mcg/mL 10-20
Diltizem (Cardizem) used for ___ ___ supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)
Tocainide HCl (Tonocard) used to prevent ___ ___ ventricular arrhythmias
Propranolol (Inderal) used to prevent/control ___ ___ (especially associated with excessive catecholamines supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)
unconscious type 1 diabetic, best intervention administer ___ IM glucagons
maximum IM injection into dorsogluteal site is ___mL 3
assess for ___ ___ when using phenobarbital (Luminal) respiratory depression
potassium supplements - NO BOLUS (can cause FATAL HYPERKALEMIA), administer no faster than ___ mEq/hr, and no more than a total of ___ mEq/L (irritation, phlebitits, infiltration) 10, 40
creatine kinase normal range is ___ to ___ units/L 22, 198
therapeutic goal using heparin aPTT between ___ to ___ seconds 60, 80
testosterone IM, if used to correct delayed puberty → assess bone maturation with bi-annual x-rays of hand and wrist, monitor ___ ___ liver function (can ↑ hypoglycemia, cause sleep apnea, exacerbate heart failure due to fluid retention)
Diphenoxylate & Atropine (Lomotil) caution in patients with ___ ___ renal impairment ↓ elimination of atropine → ↑ anticholinergic effects of atropine like confusion
Loperamide (Imodium) use ___-___ anti-diarrheal
Acetazolamide (Diamox) [diuretic] used for ___, ___, acute mountain sickness, ___; contraindicated in patients that are allergic to ___ edema, epilepsy, glaucoma (↓ intraocular pressure by ↓ amount of aqueous humor in eye), sulfonamides
Metoprolol (Lopressor) [β-blocker] hold dose for ___, (sign of exacerbation of CHF) dyspnea
Propanolol (Inderal) use for ___, ___, ___; side effects include ___/___, can block ___ dysrhythmia, HTN, angina, bronchoconstriction/bronchospasm, glyconeogenesis
cephalosporins use with caution in patients with ___ impairment or ___ disorders renal, bleeding
severe neck, face, back, tongue spasms acute dystonia
late extrapyramidal symptoms affecting speech, eating, lip smacking tardive diskenisia
Norgestrel (Ovrette) use for ___, side effects include excess progestin → weight gain from ↑ appetite, deficiency of progestin, late breakthrough bleeding, amenorrhea, excess estrogen → edema contraception
Medroxyprogesterone (Provera contraindicated with smoking/tobacco products; risks ___ and cardiovascular complications; interventions use additional contraceptive measures w/antibiotic therapy thromboembolism
Allopurinol (Zyloprim) used for ___; MofA ↓ serum uric acid levels & urinary uric acid secretion; precaution - avoid foods that acidify urine such as corn gout
TB, multi drug treatment with ___, Rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol (for resistant strains) Isoniazid (INH)
ACE inhibitor Lisinopril (Zestril) side effect - dry, persistent cough for 1-2 weeks medication should be ___ discontinued
Furosemide (Lasix) [loop diuretic] check ___ ___ before giving to determine baseline; can cause ↓ BP by ↓ circulatory volume or by relaxing venous smooth muscle blood pressure
Ticlopidine (Ticlid) used to prevent coronary artery thombosis, check ___ count platelet
PRBC (packed red blood cells) used as blood replacement when ___ overload is a concern fluid
interferon use prevents viral ___ replication
Epoetin Alfa (Procrit) is used to treat ___. side effects include ___, ___, seizures r/t Hct rising too quickly anemia, headache, hypertension
3 signs of hypertensive crisis: flushed skin, ___, ___ changes headache, visual
acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose, administer ___. Most effective if given shortly after ingestion; some protection up to 24 hrs. Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
Montelukast (Singulair) used to prevent asthma exacerbations, dose given daily at ___ bedtime
Mannitol, caution with patients with ___ ___ (can precipitate CHF and pulmonary edema) heart disease
opiate overdose causes respiratory depression, ___ antidote shorter acting, may need > 1 dose Narcan
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) precaution - avoid other CNS depressants such as ___, ___ alcohol, benzodiazepines
anaphylaxis reaction signs and symptoms are ___, ___, ___ bronchoconstriction, angioedema, hypotension
Zidovudine (Retrovir) used as a hematopoietic growth factor, acts on bone marrow to increase production of ___ ___ ___, take as prescribed to prevent resistance development, side effects inlude ___ ___ supression, ___, nephrotoxicity red blood cells, bone marrow, hepatotoxicity
Gentamicin (Garamycin) aminoglycoside antibiotic, side effects ___ and ___ nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
psuedoephedrine (Sudafed) [sympathomimetic/decongestant] increases ___ ___, ___ rate and ___ rate, contraindicated in patients with ___ blood pressure, heart, respiratory, hypertension
Acyclovir (Zovirax) side effect ___ nephrotoxicity (crystallization of drug in nephron→ renal tubular obstruction)
Digoxin toxicity can be from ↓ ___ K+ (hypokalemia)
Fluoxetine (Prozac), SSRI, effects may not be seen for weeks, dosage starts at ___ mg, can be increased after 2 wks gradually up to ___ mg/day divided into 2 doses 20, 80
Furosemide (lasix) is used for treatment of ___ in clients with renal dysfunction hypertension
Mannitol (Osmitrol) is an osmotic diuretic and is not used in the treatment of ___ hypertension
Cyclosporine (Neoral) mix w/ orange juice or milk to ↑ palatability in glass container (drug binds to plastic); grapefruit juice ___ cyclosporine levels & risk of toxicity; administer ___ ↑, immediately (can separate & settle)
thiazide side effect ___, assess ___ ___ levels hyperuricemia, uric acid
antilipemic - simvastatin (Zocor), side effects include ___ ___, aches, assess ___ ___ level muscle weakness, creatine kinase (released w/severe muscle injury)
Amitriptyline (Elavil) [tricyclic antidepressant] side effects include ___ ___, sedation, confusion orthostatic hypotension
narcotic (opiate) analgesic side effects include papillary constriction, ↓ ___ ___, ↓ ___ ___, ↓ GI motility blood pressure, heart rate
Digoxin [cardiac glycoside] that ↓ heart rate, assess ___ heart rate for 1 minute, contact doctor if heart rate < ___ bpm apical, 60
Lorazepam (Ativan) [benzodiazepine] abrupt cessation can → ___ seizures
asthma therapy, use___ (sympathomimetic drug) first to open up airways and allow other inhaled drugs to be dispersed further down bronchial tree albuterol
Terbutaline (Brethine) side effect ___ tachycardia
Oral Iron supplement adverse side effects are gastric irritation → ___, ___, vomiting, constipation anorexia, nausea
Succinylcholine common side effect muscle ___ and ___ pain, stiffness
HydroDIURIL [thiazide diuretic] side effect - may induce ___ hyperglycemia (diabetics need to ↑ insulin)
early signs of hypoglycemia confusion, dizziness, feeling shaky, hunger, headaches, irritability, pounding heart; racing pulse, pale skin, sweating, trembling, weakness, anxiety
Amitriptyline (Elavil) has an anticholinergic effect and may cause ___ retention urinary
use of ___ and ___ should be avoided with Fluoxetine (Prozac) NSAID's, anticoagulants
a nurse should tell a patient taking Bactrim DS (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) to ___ ___ to decrease the chance of renal damage from crystalluria drink water
Prednisone (Deltasone) is a ___-term, oral asthma medication short
effective hypothyroidism therapy would be indicated by T4 levels that are ___ to ___-___ range - 3mcg/dL is below the expected reference range and indicates therapy has not been effective normal, high-normal
Montelukast (Singulair) can be taken with or without food, should be taken in the ___ evening
prazosin (Minipress) can cause hypotension, this alpha-blocker can promote sodium retention so the patient should avoid ___ and use a ___ ___ salt, salt substitute
Narcan (Naloxone) can increase bleeding, can cause nausea and vomiting, can reverse analgesic and sedative effects of opioids, can cause tachycardia, and should be repeated every ___ to ___ minutes until therapeutic response is achieved 2, 3
elanapril (Vasotec) and spironolactone (Aldactone) can cause ___kalemia hyper
oral contraceptives can decrease the action of ___, but ___ does NOT effect oral contraceptives Warfarin (Coumadin), Warfarin
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) causes accelerated inactivation of ___ ___ oral contraceptives
Risedronate (Actonel) should be taken in the ___, 30 minutes before ___ morning, breakfast
Haloperidol (Haldol) causes ___, an ___ symptom akathisia, extrapyramidal
Interleukin-11 increases production of ___ platelets
Tranylcypromine (Parnate) can cause ___ ___ orthostatic hypotension
Exenatide (Byetta) can cause abdominal pain...may be indicative of ___ pancreatitis
monitor ___ when patients are taking Zidovudine (retrovir) - may cause severe anemia hemoglobin
patients taking lisinopril (Zestril) should be monitored for a ___ ___ dry cough
a decrease in dose of nitroglycerin can ___ systolic blood pressure, an increase in nitroglycerin can ___ systolic blood pressure raise, lower
tamoxifen (Nolvadex) can cause menstrual irregularities, ___ ___, and ___ ___ hot flashes, vaginal discharge
beclomethasone dipropionate (QVAR) rinse mouth!
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ, Bactrim) serious side effect ___-___ ___ Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) is a pure opioid agonist for severe ___ pain
anticholinergics are broncho___ dilators
fluid overload s/s distended neck veins, ↑ BP, tachycardia, SOB, lung crackles, edema
extrapyramidal symptoms abnormal body movements, often assoc. w/meds affecting CNS
anticholinergic S/E dry mouth, photophobia, ↓ urination
older adults (65+) ↑ gastric pH (alkaline), ↑ body fat, ↓ everything else (pretty much!)
serotonin syndrome s/s, begin after ___ to ___ hrs. after starting treatment a d m i t - h a (l) f : Anxiety, Diaphoresis, Mental confusion, Incoordination, Tremors, Hallucinations, Agitation, (Lethal), Fever, 2 to 72
betapace results in decreased ___ ___ and ___ ___ ↓ BP, ↓ HR
Prozac take ___ instead of ___, monitor for: ___ ___ acetaminophen, ibuprofen, sexual dysfunction
tyramine-rich foods aged cheese, salami, avocados, figs, bananas, smoked fish, soy sauce, red wine, beers
phenelzine (Nardil) - MAOI, monitor for ___ ___ orthostatic hypotension
blood pressure medications Captopril, Enalapril, Enalaprilat, Fosinopril, Lisinopril, Ramipril
tricyclics Amitriptyline, Imipramine, Doxepin, Nortriptyline, Amoxapine, Trimipramine
tricyclics can cause orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects (can't see, pee, spit, shit), dry mouth, blurred vision, photophobia, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia
anti-parkinson’s levodopa, Sinemet, Mirapex, benztropine, Symmetrel, Requip, Parlodel, Artane
excess progestin may lead to ___ ___ weight gain
azole antifungals can increase effects of ___ Warfarin
Captopril can cause neutropenia, check ___ every 2 weeks for 3 months, increases risk for ___ – DO NOT USE A SALT SUBSTITUTE, take 1 hour before meals WBC, hyperkalemia
akathisia is an extrapyramidal symptom that can be caused by ___ haloperidol
patients with RA have an elevated ___ due to inflammation ESR
Ceftin, check ___ and ___ levels BUN, creatinine
INR rate is ___ to ___ for patients with MI or thromboembolism or a-fib 2, 3
INR rate is ___ to ___ for patients with mechanical heart valves 3, 4.5
take ___ at night, that’s when cholesterol production takes place statins
Retrovir (zidovudine) can cause ___, monitor ___ levels anemia, hemoglobin
increasing nitroglycerin can lower ___ ___ ___ systolic blood pressure
Byetta can cause ___, watch for abdominal pain pancreatitis
DM 1, check BG ___ to ___ times a day 3, 5
Warfarin increases ___ and heparin increases ___ INR, aPTT
hydromorphone should be held if patients respiratory rate is below ___/minute 12
TSH target of ___ to ___ microunits/mL is appropriate range for hypothyroidism therapy 0.5 to 2.0
mannitol for hypovolemic shock should produce ___ to ___mL/hr of urine 30, 50
Dilantin (phenytoin) (for epilepsy) can cause rash that may lead to serious infection, can decrease effectiveness of ___ ___, notify ___ when on it oral contraceptives, dentist
___ is effective because it blocks synthesis of 4 clotting factors that are dependent on Vitamin K Warfarin
cyclosporine can cause nephrotoxicity which is manifested as elevated ___ and ___ levels BUN, creatinine
administration of blood products; short-term use (catheters), long-term use (infusion ports), ___-gauge for trauma clients, ___-gauge for surgical clients, ___ to ___ gauge for children, older adults, medical clients, stable postoperative 16, 18, 22, 24
SSRI's Prozac, Celexa, Lexapro, Paxil, Zoloft
MAOIs should be discontinued for ___ ___ before taking SSRI 14 days
Valium, Xanax, Ativan, Librium, Restoril - benzodiazepines for anxiety, seizure, insomnia, muscle spasm, alcohol withdrawal, panic disorder, induction of anesthesia
Created by: Falicon