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# Rehab Research

### Chapter 20- Statistical Reasoning

What is statistics? a discipline in which mathematics and probability are applied in ways that allow researchers to make sense of their data
What is a frequency distribution? a tally of the number of times each score is represented in a data set
What are the four ways to represent a frequency distribution? 1. frequency distribution with percentages, 2. grouped frequency distribution with percentages, 3. frequency histogram, and 4. stem-and-leaf plot
How is the central tendency represented? mean, median, and mode
What is the variability of a data set? the amount of spread in the data
How is variability represented? range, variance, standard deviation
What is a normal curve? a symmetric frequency distribution that can be defined in terms of the mean and standard deviation of a set of data
How is normal distribution represented? z Score and percentages of the normal distribution
What is sampling distribution? a specific type of normal distribution
How is significant difference represented? with a null hypothesis
What is the conventional level of chance that is tolerated (alpha level)? 0.05 or 5%
What information is needed for the determination of statistical probabilities? the magnitude of the differences between groups, the variability within a group, and the sample size
What is the effect size? the between-group difference divided by a pooled version of the SD of the groups being compared
What is the purpose for determining effect size? allows the relative magnitude of experimental effects to be compared across variables with different measurement characteristics
What is a Type I error? if the statistical conclusion is that there is a difference between groups when in fact there is no difference
What is a Type II error? occurs when the statistical conclusion is that there is no difference between the groups when in reality there is a difference
What is the probability of Type II error? beta
What is the power of a test? the likelihood that it will detect a difference when one exists; 1 - beta
What are the four major threats to statistical conclusion validity? low power, lack of clinical importance, error rate problems, violated assumptions (and a fifth, failure to use intention-to-treat analysis)
Created by: amwilliamson