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# Rehab Research

### Chapter 18- Measurement Theory

What is the definition of measurement used by the text? measurement is the systematic process by which things are differentiated; measurement is not a random process, but one that proceeds according to rules and guidelines
What are some of the examples of variable properties? distance, duration, frequency, magnitude, topography, latency, pattern
What are the scales of measurement? nominal scales, ordinal scales, interval scales, ratio scales
What are nominal scales? provides classification without placing any value on the categories within the classification; none of the properties of a real number system
What are ordinal scales? indicate whether a person or object has more or less of a certain quality; do not ensure that there are equal intervals between categories or ranks
What are interval scales? have real-number system properties of order and distance, but lack a meaningful origin; equal intervals so addition and subtraction are meaningful, no meaningful origin because no true zero
What are ratio scales? exhibit order, distance, and origin; all arithmetic functions can be applied; absence is zero
How do you determine the scale of a measurement? determine whether there is a true zero, whether intervals between numbers are equal, and whether there is an order to the numbers or names that constitute the measure
What are the two classifications of variables? continuous and discrete
What are continuous variables? one that theoretically can be measured to a finer and finer degree
What are discrete variables? numbers can only assume one distinct category, no "between categories"
What seven basic concepts underlie measurement theory? 1 frequency distribution, 2 mean, 3 variance, 4 standard deviation, 5 normal curve, 6 correlation coefficient, and 7 standard error of measurement
What are the two basic frameworks in which measurement is conducted and evaluated? norm-referenced and criterion referenced
What are norm-referenced frameworks? measurements that use raw scores that are compared with tables of raw-score norms
What are criterion referenced frameworks? individual's performance is evaluated with respect to some absolute level of achievement
How is reliability defined? the degree to which test scores are free from errors of measurement
What are the two theories of reliability? classical measurement theory and generalizability theory
What is classical measurement theory? the assumption that every measurement, or obtained score, consists of a true component and an error component
What is generalizability theory? recognizes that there are different sources of variability for any measure
What are the four components of reliability presented? instrument, intrarater, interrater, and intrasubject reliability
What are the two was in which reliability is quantified? relative reliability and absolute reliability
What is relative reliability? examines the relationship between two or more sets of repeated measures
What is absolute reliability? examines the variability of the scores from measurement to measurement
What is measurement validity? the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness f the specific inferences made from test scores
What three forms of validity are concerned with measurement validity? construct validity, content validity, and criterion validity
Created by: amwilliamson