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BP in SP IV Vol 1

Best Practices in School Psychology IV Vol 1 Professional Foundations

What are the two philosophical foundations in school psychology literature? correlational and experimental
What does the correlational discipline emphasize? assessment of the natural variations amount people in cognitive, physical, and social-emotional domains. These variations are then related to actual performance in academic settings.
Who described the two disciplines that school psychology has as foundations? Cronbach
What does the experimental discipline emphasize? aim is to create higher levels of performance through, first, discovering the best interventions and then, second, disseminating and implementing the best interventions.
What is ATI? Aptitude by Treatment Interactions
What does ATI involve? Involves the study of (a) differences among treatments, (b) aptitude differences among person, and (c) the interaction of aptitudes and treatments.
What is the male to female ratio for LD? ED? 2:1, 4:1
What is the Blueprint? a document that delineated the key competencies needed by school psychologists in order to assume roles
What four domains does the Blueprint delineate? 1. interpersonal communication, collaboration, and consultation. 2. student diversity in development and learning. 3. legal, ethical practice, and professional development. 4. data-based decision making and accountability.
What did accountability for special education meant? documenting the processes, placements, and services
What are the four levels of the Heartland Area Education Agency problem-solving model? Level 1 - Consultation between parents and teachers, Level 2 - Consultation with other resources, Level 3 - Consultation with Extended Problem-Solving Team, Level 4 - IEP consideration.
What are the four steps of problem-solving logic? What is the problem? Why is it happening? What should be done about it? Did it work?
Define intervention A planned modification of the environment made for the purpose of changing behaviour in a pre-specified way
Name six intervention components antecedent interventions, alternative skills instruction, instructional consequent strategies, reduction-oriented consequent strategies, long-term prevention strategies, support for team members
What were the three shifts in IDEA 97? assessments are now required to con taint "functional and developmental" information, IEPs must contain measurable long-term goals, statutory language dealing with educational accountability
What is the IDEAL model of problem solving? Identify the problem, Define the problem, Explore alternative solutions to the problem, Apply a solution, and Look at the effects of that application
Who developed the IDEAL model of problem solving? Bransford & Stein
Define assessment the process of information gathering for purposes of decision making
What is the difference between assessment and measurement? assessment includdes all types of information gathering and all types of information; measurement is limited to numerical description and representation of observations
What is cognitive conflict? occurs when a person perceives a discrepancy between what they desire and what they experience
What is dissonance reduction? the process involved in reducing cognitive conflict
What is EHA? Education of the Handicapped
What was IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
What is the difference between handicaps and disabilities? handicaps are conditions created by the relationship between what the individuals can do and what must be done to succeed at a particular task, disabilities are conditions of the individual
What are the 6 major legislative revisions for special ed in the US P.L. 94-142, The Education of all Handicapped Children Act (EHA) (1975), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (1973), the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 1997)
What are the hierarchical sources of law in the US - (6) Federal Constitution, Federal Statute, State Constitution, State Statute, Administrative Rules, Local Policy and Procedure
What is the cornerstone of all law in the US? The U.S. Constitution
Who is responsible in the US for providing an education to the public? The individual states
What is the most influential source of law affecting the delivery of educational and school psychological services? legislation
What is program legislation? Provides funds for delivering specific programs and in providing those funds mandates that agencies delivering the services dos o in a manner prescribed by the legislation
What is the most widely known program legislation in the US? IDEA
What is civil rights legislation? Differs from program legislation in that requirements are usually not tide to program funding
An example of civil rights legislation Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with disabilities Act of 1990
Which amendment has been the most influential with respect to special education and why? The Fourteenth Amendment; many court decisions that have clarified the rights of children and educational practice have, in large part, been based on this Amendment.
Brown v. Board of Education is the judicial cornerstone applying the equal protection clause to education for all children, including those with disabilities. Established that educating minority children in separate facilities violated the equal protection clause of the 14th
PARC (Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citzens and Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia both challenged the exclusion mentally retarded children from school who were deemed "uneducable". Mills also applied to other handicapped children as well.
What section requires that districts provide a "free appropriate public education to each qualified person with a disability Section 504
What is FAPE free appropriate public education
What does Section 504 require for FAPE? 1. Nondiscriminatory evaluation and placement; periodic re-evaluation, individual educations, services equal in quality to non-disabled students, mix with non-disabled, parent participation
Americans with Disabilities Act civil rights law that prohibits the discrimination of people with disabilities in programs and activities, public and private, and ensures, therefore, the civil rights of all those with disabilities.
What are the two key components of districts when implementing FAPE? Individualized Education Plan (IEP) and Least Restrictive Environment
Define IEP a statement of the child's present levels of educational performance including how the disability affects progress, annual goals, services offered, modifications, how will progress be measured
What does the least restrictive environment require? that to the maximum extent appropriate, handicapped children, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities are educated with children who are not handicapped
IEP related court decisions Rowley, Irving Independent School District v. Tatro
Brown V. Board of Education applied the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the issue of racial segregation in our public schools
inclusion the practice of including students with disabilities in general education classes
mainstreaming students with disabilities are placed in general education classes only after assignment in special education and only if their skills suggested the could succeed when "cast into the mainstream"
What was the first course case to deal with Least restrictive environment Roncker, 1983
FERPA - Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act parents access to records
applied professional ethics the application of broad ethical principles and specific rules to the problems that arise in professional practice
What does NASP's code provide guidelines in: professional competence; professional relationships with students, parents, the school, the community, other professionals, and trainees and interns; advocacy of the rights and welfare of the student/client; professional responsibilities in assessment and
Why are codes of ethics imperfect guides tobehaviour composed of broad, abstract principles, are vague; are often competing ethical principles that at times conflict with law; may be conflicting interests of multiple clients; frequently fail to address new and emerging ethical issues
ethical conduct involves careful choices based on knowledge of codes and standards and ethical reasoning
What is the "top priority" in the delivery of school psychological services? concern for the rights and welfare of children
What are four broad themes underlying ethical choices in school psychology? 1) respect for the dignity of persons; (2) responsible caring; integrity in professional relationships, responsibility to immunity and society
intuitive choices based on feeling responses to situations along with personal beliefs
critical-evaluative choices reasoned choices
privacy "the freedom of individuals to choose for themselves the time and the circumstances under which and the extent to which their beliefs, behaviours, and opinions are to be shared or withheld from others"
What are the three key elements of informed consent? it must be knowing, competent, and voluntary
Who made the ethical decision making model? adapted from Koocher and Keith-Siegel
Ethical Decision Making Modle describe, define, consult ethical-legal guidelines, evaluate the rights of all parties, generate a list of alternative decisions, enumerate consequences, present evidence, make the decision
Three situations in which the school psychologist is obligated to share confidential student-client disclosures with others: 1. when the student requests it. 2. when there is a situation involving danger to the student or others; 3. when there is a legal obligation to testify in a court of law
Tarasoff v. Regents of Californina take reasonable steps to prevent anticipated harm when the client is a danger to self and others
How should information be shared with parents and teachers in a collaborative effort? only generalizations, rather than specific confidences are shared
What are the five broad ethical-legal concerns concerning psychoeducational assessment they must be multifaceted, comprehensive, fair, valid, and useful
What are the four choice strategies for behavioural issues 1. differential reinforcement, reinforcing appropriate behaviours incompatible with problem behaviours; 2. extinction, withdrawing of reinforcement for undesired behaviour 3. removal of desirable stimuli - time out 4. presentation of aversive stimuli
Court ruling surrounding time out Dickens by Dickens v. Johanson County Board of education; prolonged, may be a violation of a pupil's legal rights
Recommendations for time-out segregating or secluding the child within the classroom, or requiring the child to do schoolwork while in the time-out room, is recommended
What is the best way to make ethical choices critical-evaluative level
Name the three hierarchical research roles for school psychologists? consumers, distributors, and conductors.
Name three important considerations for research evaluation. internal validity - are the internal features of the research conducted well enough so that we can have confidence in the results?; external validity - how generalizable are the results?; is the article well written so reader can understand
Created by: 548656377