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Rad 120 Postioning

QuestionAnswer
How many bones are in the foot? 26
How many phalanges are in the foot? 14
How many tarsals are in the foot? 7
How many metatarsals are in the foor? 5
For descriptive purposes what are the divisions of the foot? forefoot, midfoot,and hindfoot
What does the forefoot include? metatarsals and the toes
What does the midfoot include? 5 tarsal bones
What are the 5 tarsal bones? Navicular, talus, medial cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, and intermediate cunieform
What does the hindfot include? calcaneous and the talus
What are the names for the two arches that the foot bones form? longitudinal and transverse arches
What is the function of the longitudinal arch? acts as a shock absorber to distribute the weight of the body in all directions which permits a smooth walk.
What is the function of the transverse arch? It runs from side to side and assists in supporting the longitudinal arch
What is the term used for the superior surface of the foot? dorsum or dorsal surface
What is the term for the inferior or posterior aspect of the foot? plantar surface
How many phalanges does the great toe consist of? 2
How many phalanges does the 2nd through 5th digit of the toes have? 3 in each
What is the expanded proximal end of the metatarsals called? the base
What is the small, rounded distal ends of the metatarsals called? The head
What metatarsal is the shortest and the thickest? The first metatarsal
What metatarsal is the longest? second metatarsal
The base of the fifth metatarsal consists of what? a prominent tuberosity
Where is the most common site of fractures in the toes? in the prominent tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal
What are the names of the 7 tarsal bones in the foot? calcaneous, talus, navicular, cubiod, medial cuneiform, intermediate cunieform, and lateral cunieform
what is the largest and strongest tarsal bone? calcaneous
What is another name for the calaneous? os calcis
What is the prjection of the calcaneous? posteriorly and medially at the distal part of the foot
Where is the long axis of the calcaneous directed? inferiorly
What does the calcaneous form? approximately a 30 degree angle
What does the posterior and inferior portion of the calcaneous contain? the posterior tuberosity
superiorly what joins with the talus? 3 articular facets
what are the facets called? anterior, middle, and posterior facets
What is the groove of the the posterior talar articular facet(calcaneal sulcus) and the groove of the inferior surface of the talus called? Sinus tarsi
what is the shelflike overhang of the calcaneous called? Sustentaculum tali
what does the lateral surface of the calcaneous contain? the trochlea
Second largest tarsal bone is called talus
What does the talus articulate with? tibia, fibula, calcaneous, and the navicular bone
Where is the head of the talus directed and what does it join? anteriorly and has articular surfaces that join the navicular bone and the calcaneous
What forms the roof of the sinus tarsi? sulcus tali
What bone lies on the lateral side of the foot between the calcaneous and the 4th and 5th metatarsal? cuboid
what bone lies on the medial side of the foot between the talus and 3 cuneiforms? navicular bone
What lies at the central and medial aspect of the foot between the navicular bone and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd metatarsals the cuneiforms
which is the largest cuneiform? the medial cuneiform
what is the smallest cuneiform? the intermediate cunieform
What is the bone called that lies beneath the head of the 1st metatarsal on the plantar surface of the foot the seasmoid bones
How are the seasmoid bones attached? They are actually detached from the foot and embedded within two tendons
What are the two bones that make up the leg? tibia and fibula
This is the second largest bone in the body? tibia
Where is the tibia situated and what is it know as? on the medial side of the leg and is the weight bearing bone
What does the tibia consist of? one body and two expanded extremeties
what is the slope of the tibial plateaus 10-20 degrees posteriorly
What is the process called that is at the distal end of the tibia and medial surface called medial malleolus
The anterolateral surface of the tibia is called the anterior tubercle
The surface under the distal tibia is smooth and shaped for articulation with the talus
Is the slender bone of the leg that contains one body and two articular extermities fibula
what does the head of the fibula artculate with the lateral condyle of the tibia
the lateroposterior aspect of the head of the fibula is a conic projection called the apex
what is the enlarged distal end of the fibula called lateral malleolus
where does the lateral malleolus lie approximately 15-20 degrees more posteriorly than the medial malleolus
What is the longest, strongest, and heaviest bone in the body the femur
Where do the condyles lie when the femur is vertical the medial condyle is lower than the lateral condyle
How many degrees are between the two condyles of the femur 5 to 7 degrees
When doing an x-ray on the knee how to you angle the central ray to open up the joint spaces and why 5 to 7 degrees cephalad because of the 5 to 7 degree between the condyles
What does the superior portion of the femur articulate with the acetabulum of the hip joint
Anteriorly what are the medial and lateral condyles of the distal portion of the femur seperated by the patellar surface
a shallow triangular depression patellar surface
a deep depression intercondylar fossa
why is it important to identify the tubercle of the lateral knee on a radiograph it identifies overrotation and underrotation
what passes through the trochlear groove the popliteal blood vessels and nerves
another name for knee cap patella
largest most constant seasmoid bone patella
when does the patella develop tendon for the quadriceps femoris muscles between age 3 and 5
what is the most complex joint in the human body knee joint
The articulation between the phalanges interphalangeal articulation
what type joint is an interphalangeal joint hinge joint, synovial tissue that is freely moveable and provides only flexion and extension
What is the articualtion between the middle and proximal phalanges proximal interphalangeal jionts
what is the joint in the greeat toe called interphalangeal joint
The calcaneous supports the _____ talus
Anteriorly the calcaneous articulates with the cuboid to form the calcaneocuboid joint
the talus articuates with the navicular bone anteriorly, supports the tibia above, and articulates with the tbia and fibula at its sides
the tibia articulates with the fibula called the tibiofibular joint
The patella articulates with the patella surface of the femur and is called the patellofemoral joint
what is the largest joint of the body the femorotibial joint or knee joint
What is the IR for the AP, PA, AP Oblique, and lateral projection of the toes 8x10
How do you position the patient in an AP projection seated or supine on the table
What is the central ray for an AP, PA, AP Oblique and lateral projection perpendicular
Where is the central centered on an AP, PA, and AP Oblique projection of the toes 3rd MTP joint
what is the collimation of an AP, PA, and AP Oblique projection of the toes 1 inch on all sides of the toes inculding 1 inch proximal to the MTP joint
How do you position the patient in a PA projection of the toes Prone on table with foot on IR
Patients should lie how for a lateral projection of the 3rd, 4th and 5th toe affected side(lateral recumbent)
patients should lie on what side for a lateral projection of the great toe and 2nd toe unaffected side(recumbent side)
where is the central ray centered on a lateral projection of the toes enter at the IP joint of the great toe or proximal IP joint of the lesser toes
What is the degree of angulation on the foot or toes in an AP oblique toe projection 30 to 45 degree angle
what is the central ray angle on an AP axial projection of the toes 15 degree posteriorly or toward the heel
What structures are shown on an AP axial and the PA projection of the toes 14 phalanges, distal portion of all metatarsals, and the IP JOints
What structures are shown on an AP oblique and AP projection of the toes 14 phalanges, distal portion of all metatarsals
What structures are shown on a Lateral projection of the toes Lateral projection of phalanges of the toes and IR articulation projected free of the other toes
When evaulating an Ap projection of the toes what do you see proper collimation, no rotation, soft tissue and midshaft concavity equal on both sides, toes seperated,distal metatarsal,soft tissue and bony trabecular detail
When evaulating an AP axial projection of the toes what do you see proper collimation, no rotation, soft tissue and midshaft equal on both sides, toes seperated,distal metatarsal,soft tissue and bony trabecular detail, and open IP and MTP joint space
When evaulating an PA projection of the toes what do you see proper collimation, no rotation, soft tissue and midshaft concavity equal on both sides,distal metatarsal, soft tissue and bony trabecular detail, and open IP and axial joint spaces
When evaluating an AP obligue toe what should you see proper collimation, oblique toes and more midshaft concavity on all sides, open IR and 2nd-5th MTP, 1st MTP, toes seperated, distal portion of all metatarsals, soft tissue and bony trabecular detail
When evaluating the lateral toe projection what should you see proper collimation, phalanges in profile(toenail should appear lateral), phalanx without superimposition, IP joint spaces open, MTP joints overlap, soft tissue and bony trabecular detail
Avulsion fracture of the medial malleolus with loss of the ankle mortise Pott fracture
Avulsion fracture of the base of the 5th metatarsal jones fracture
hereditary form of arthritis in which uric acid is deposited into the joints Gout
What is the SID for all projections of the toes 40 inches
What makes up the lower limb foot, leg, thigh, hip
where does the CR enter in a plantodorsal projection of the calcaneous 3rd metatarsal base
The anterior surface of the talus articulates with the navicular bone
What does the tangential projection show The sesamoid bones in profile
rotate the leg medially for what projection A lateral projection of the foot
What joint is a ball & socket joint in the foot talocalcanavicular joint
What projection has a 10 degree posterior angle to show the TMT joint AP or AP axial of the foot
What is the CR entering for the foot 3rd metatarsal base of the foot
What is the oblique projection of the foot AP Oblique projection with medial rotation
What is the degree rotation for an Oblique foot projection 30 degrees
What is the rotation of the toes in an Oblique projection 30 to 45 degrees
What is the CR entering for an AP Oblique is perpendicular to the 3rd metatarsal base
Why to you medially rotate for an AP Oblique projection of the foot to show the cubiod
Where is the CR directed in a lateral foot perpendicular to the base of the 3rd metatersal base
What is the most common postion of the patient for a mediolateral rotation of the foot recumbent
The structical status of the longitudital arch is best demonstrated in what projections lateromedial and AP Axial projections(weight-bearing)
What is the CR angle for the lateral calcaneous projection 0 degrees
What is the CR angle for an Axial calcaneous projection 40 degrees
What is the central projection for a mediolateral and lateral projection of the calcaneous Axial plantodorsal
The axial plantarsurface of the calcaneous should be in what relation to the IR 90 degrees
What is the CR pojection of the lateral calcaneous 0 degrees
What is the essential lateral projection of the calcaneous mediolateral
What is the CR angle of the axial toe projection 15 degrees
Compensating filters benefits from the calcaneous and the foot
What is the common projection of the foot and calcaneous mediolateral
Where is the CR located on on a lateral projection of the calcaneous 1 inch distal to the medial mallelous
Created by: atesta0824