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project+ over300q

335 questions

QuestionAnswer
During the planning and implementation phases, there is often a need to conduct trade-offs between several approaches to the project execution. The trade-offs are made between_______ . Cost, schedule, and quality.
What is the core function of a project manager? Project integration
Which two methods are valid for developing project task duration estimates? (Choose two) Historical data and Expert judgement
what component is used to estimate resource requirements, activity durations, and costs? Work breakdown structure (WBS)
Task A is dependent on the completion of Task B. Task C is dependent on the starting of Task B. Place the tasks in the order in which they will start. Task B, Task C, Task A
The stakeholders do not agree on the objectives for the project. What is the first thing you should do in order to resolve the differences the stakeholders have with respect to the project objectives? D. Conduct interviews with each stakeholder to understand which objectives they feel are critical. What is the first thing you should do in order to resolve the differences the stakeholders have with respect to the project objectives?
The project is well under way and you notice that the enthusiastic support of an executive stakeholder has diminished. You believe the executive now has doubt about the project. Which abilities would best help resolve this situation? (Choose one) The ability to identify the areas of doubts.
The ratio of Budgeted Cost of Work Performed to Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWP/BCWS) is called______ . Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
What would most improve the project development process? Utilizing a standard, well-defined project development methodology.
developers disagrees with the current corporate development standards, and believes an alternative approach to the task is superior. You do not have the expertise to make a judgment as to whether the developer has a better approach. What should you do? Meet with the person in charge of the corporate development standards and with subject matter experts to obtain a decision on changing the standards, or obtain an exemption from the standards for the project.
When can you be certain that the statement of work document is complete? After the project manager and the sponsor understand and agree that project objectives will be met by the statement of work
You need ten servers, configured in a specific way, vendor is able to deliver six now but won't be able to deliver the rest for two weeks. How does this affect the project? SOW vendor provides is a document the project manager must understand and interpret before the project sponsor signs it. In it, the vendor defines what they will and will not do. it's important to make sure the SOW aligns with the scope of the project.
A charge for the rental of a room that will be used for a project meeting is an example of what kind of cost? Fixed
Formal stakeholder acceptance of project deliverables occurs during which process? Scope verification
Which will be detailed in the project planning document(s) with respects to the project manager? How performance will be evaluated
Which of the following is an effective outcome of a change management process? Minimizes productivity loss during the project
An organization is faced with choosing from a number of projects and creates an evaluation matrix. Which of the following criteria is likely to be the LEAST important? Training
Project sponsors have the greatest influence on the scope, quality, duration and cost of a project during which phase? Planning phase
Change Control Board Group whose function is to review, approve or reject changes on the project as they relate to the various areas of the represented bussiness
Change Control System Used to assest the impact and consequences of requested changes on the project
Contraints Factors that limits project options such as the number of people available, amount of time or money available to finish the job or other resources or assest issues.
Close out any contract w/outside vendor. Deliver any required reports assoc. w/closure Opa update, Complete any Close Project of Phase activite.Performed Lesson Learned.Complete Archive of any project File OPA update Release resources for other projects General Closing Order of itmes for a project (6)
Opportunity that allows the team to learn from past experience and improve on the project as the complete it. LL can come along before the end on the project . If they come at the end administrative procedures come into play What are Lessons Learned?
develop consistent process to evaluate change.To create environment in which you can review n approve appropiate changes to modify project 4 the better. set communication standard so project team can communicate those changes to appropiate stakeholder 3 main goals of a configuration mgmt system
Project Managment Plan A cumulative document that contains all the documents used in the project mgmt apporach on the project. It describes the steps associated w/ executing, monitoring and controlling and closing
Product Verification Lesson Learned Updating records - Project files, contract files Reporting Archiving Formal Acceptance Closing a Project Includes the Following (3)
When you perform project mgmt part of the concept of planning is to deal with items unkown, here you must make assumptions for scheduling and budgeting. In most cases as the project evolves you learn more about it Know Assumptions as they relate to a Project
PMIS Used for communication and information distribution on the project not necessarily a high tech system but whatever is used for project communication on the project. Normally a mixture of technology and non-technology.
Project Scope is built What is the result of Executing?
Project Charter and Stakholders are Identified What is the result of Initiating?
Corrective Action What is the result of Monitoring and Controlling?
results in the product, service or result transition of the project What is the result of Closing?
Characteristics of the PMO (3) A centralized area for all 1.PM personnel to and be assigned. 2. for documentation a process support 3. For Project mgmt support and auditing of projects. Characteristics of the PMO (3)
Mgmt by Projects Performing day to day operations by a project Mgmt approach...
Project Initiation The process that result in the authorization of a project..
Planning Process The process required to develop the activites to attain objective..
Project Mgmt Emcompasses project of similar work or correlated activites managed in a coordinated way to attain benefits that could not achieved separately
Project Life Cycle Process of completing work on the Project. It is not the management of the work, but rather the work process. Can be describe what work is done and who does the work in each phase of the project, what the deliverables are, and the approval for each phase
Sub Project A smaller piece of the project as a result of decomposition; is usually created as a result of creating the work breakdown structure
Characterisitics of Project(5) Has a specific purpose Creates specific results, Has a start a nd finish Temporary Could be progressively elaborated as more is learn
Product Life Cycle Involves the product or service from concept to divestment (closure) This cycle typically begins with a business plan end with a product or service
Project Mgmt Life Cycle in 5 process group Initating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing
Projects (or project selection) are typically authorized as result of the following Market Demand Strategic Opportunity Customer Request Technological Advance Legal requirements
Program Management A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not availble from managing the individually
Strategic Planning Practice by which a company looks into the furture for products or services it must have, typically 3 to 5 years in the future. Projects are the tools that company will use to implement the strategic goals
Scope time cost What is the triple contraints?
Quality gurus HR gurus Comm Channels Fromula Expected Monetary Value Formula Four Core Earned Value Formula Standard Deviation Values Triangular pert formulas 10 things remember for a brain dump
Process groups /Knowledge areas are number by 2 - 20 - 8 - 10 - 2
Portfolio A group of programs of projects related and managed in a coordinated way to achieve specific strategic business goals
Program A group of related projected project that are managed to obtain synergistic benefits and control
Projectized Organization An Organizational which authorizes the project manager to assign resources to the project to establish priorities and to direct the work of the project
Portfolio Mgmt Mgmt of various portfolios that include the project and programs of which they consist can in prioritization, authorization, mgmt
Opportunity that allows the team to learn from past experience and improve on the project as the complete it. LL can come along before the end on the project . If they come at the end administrative procedures come into play What are Lessons Learned?
Baseline The original estimate plus any approve changes. it is the value against which the work results (somtimes called actuals) are compared
Anything that ends with a plan or baseline Components of the project Mgmt Plan..
Configuration Mgmt
1. Anyone whose has an authority to create a charter. 2. even a PM - but it must be signed by someone who can invest authority for the project w/ the PM typically Senior Mgmt Who creates a the Project Charter?
Develop Project Charter Process of developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase and document initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholders needs and expectations
Work Authorization System Formal or informal system used in project mgmt to ensure that work is done as planned. It ensures that right work is done in the right order at the right time by the right people
4.1 Develop Project Charter, 4.2 Develop Proj Mgmt Plan, 4.3 Direct and Manage Project Execution, 4.4 Monitor and Control Work, 4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control, 4.6 Close Project or Phase 6 process for Project Integration Management (6)
Organization Process Assest
It's important to explain the impact of requested changes to the authorized requestor or sponsor and let that person make the call on approving the changes based on the impact Know how to correctly interpret stakeholder requests for project changes.
Enterprise Environmental Factors Inputs to many processes because they deal w/ variables external to the project such as gov't regulations and market conditions. Examples are org structures gov't standards, personnel policies, business market.
RC- request made by someone on a project not approved and has no impact. AC - Request that have been made through the change control system and approved. They are appart now part of the project w/ any potential impact now affecting the project. Difference between Requested changes and approved changes?
Project Mgmt plan What is the result of Planning?
Run Chart Used to track technical performance such as how well something works or schedule or cost performance such as how things were completed on time or budget, respectively
Team Member - Responsible for the quality of their own work. PM- Responsible for quality standards for the project. Senior Exe - Responsible for the quality standards at the company Who is responsible for quality and at what level?
Population Testing - you test every item, Sample testing - you determine how much of something must be tested to ensure that defects are caught Difference between Sample and Population Testing?
Design of Experiments Statistical process used to determine the factors that can influence variables associated with a process or product
Variable Characteristic that the Perform Quality Control process is to measure. It is a generic characteristic or property, such as capacity or height.
Attribute A specific measurement being recorded - for example square ft., inches or meters.
ISO 9000 (International Organization Standard) is associcated with companies that wish to document their process and adhere to those processes.
Document what you do , Do what you document, Document any variance (from the normal process) ISO 3 Steps
Is the likelihood that something will occur. It can be expressed in a percentage (1% 75% 100%) or (0.01, 0.75, 1.0) The sum of all probabilities equals 100% or 1.0 What is Probabilities?
Sigma is also know as Standard Deviation. It is considered the quality standard. 1 Sigma - 68.26%, 2 Sigma - 95.45%, 3. Sigma - 99.73% What is Sigma?
Quality The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements. Compliance with compliance
Variable A quality characteristic measured in increments
Attribute A quality charateristic that either is classified as conforming or non-conforming
Total Quality Management (TQM) A quality philosophy that focuses on a proactive attitude toward quality with a detail toward statistical analysis to document improvement.
Customer Satisfaction, Prevention over inspection, Continous Improvement, Management Responsibility Modern quality managment complements projects. Both disciplines recognize the importance of: (4)
Fishbone AKA cause/effect diagram Tool you can use initially in a project to evaluate what could potentially cause defects. You can use it during the project to review symptoms to determine the real problem (continue to ask questions until the root cause is determine)
Demings 14 principles of management are generally seen as the founding basis for total quality management Points are: 1. be proactive, not reactive 2. Utilize leadership and accountability , 3. Measure and strive for constant improvement Who is W Edward Deming ?
Conformance- company pay for quality in a proactive way, typically up front in the planning area of a project ie - increase morale, Nonconformance - company pays for quality in a reactive way, on the back end-decrease morale-decrease customer perception Cost of Conformance and nonconformance examples...
Design of Experiments Key tool that is a statistical method or tool, that helps identify which factors may influence specific variable of a product or process under development or in production. It lets you change many factors at once.
Quality Management Plan Output that defines what standards to work plus how to attain and test for the standards
Cost-Benefit Analysis Key tool how to minimize rework and maximize satisfaction and productivity
Benchmarking Key tool for comparing a product or service to other standards
Accuracy deals with the alignment of a value with its target value. It deals with how close the the measurement is to the target. Precision deals with consistency of the output- it deals with many of the outputs meet the target Difference between Precision and accuracy?
CMMI 6 SIGMA LEAN 6 Sigma Quality Function Proprietary Quality Management Methodolgies (4)
Upper Control Limit (UCL),Lower Control Limit (LCL) Represent the control points of the proces. Typically the limits are set +/- 3 sigma
Upper/Lower Specification limits (USL/LSL) Limits that are customer established and can be inside or outside the control limits
Pareto Diagram A cumulative histogram you can use to see where the key problems lie. You can see what is causing the most frequency of problems plus a cumulative percentage of the problem
Team Mbr - responsible for quality of their own work, PM - responsible for quality standards on the project, Sr. Exe -responsible for the quality standards at the company What the Quality Responsiblity for: Team Mbr, PM, Sr. Exe
6 Sigma Modern Philosophy states that approx 99.999% of everything a company creates or the process it executes are error-free
Continous Improvement (Kaizen) Proactive stance to development, one that makes improvement throughout a process
Gold Plating Practice of providing more than what the customer request
ISO 9000 (International Org for Standardization) Standard is associated with companies that wish to document their process and adhere to those processes
Document what you do, Do what you document, Document any variance (from the normal process) ISO 3 Steps
8.1 Plan Quality, 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance, 8.3 Perform Quality Control 3 Processes of quality managment
breach If the contract is not completed by the contractor either for failure to comply, bankruptcy etc. this is know as
The company's quality system must conform to the criteria set forth in ISO 9001. A company that is registered to the international quality standards ISO 9001 means that....
Often assign project tasks to the various functionals managers In the project coordinator form of a matrix organization, project coordinators often....
Level of Scope development Infixed pricing the most important consideration is...
Rolling Wave Planning A planning technique which progressively details the work as information becomes firm, and allows for less detail in later project phase where uncertainty is greater is called
0/100 The most conservative of work completion rules
Hygiene factors Herzberg theory on motivation deals with...
Conflict between functional manager and project manager One of the biggest potential problems facing a project team member in a strong matrix is....
IRR - Interal Rate of Return ______deals with how we are effeiciently using our money
Smoothing and withdrawal The conflict resolutions modes that are least likely to resolve situations
Implied warranty What warranty type relates to merchantablily or fitness for use?
Schedules, project priorities, resources The most common causes of conflict in a mulit-project environment include...(3)
internal risk can be control and external cannot be control Difference between internal and external risk
Make money and to protect the public In the area of legal risks there are 2 reason for licensing of projects....(2)
Cost plus percentage of cost From the Buyers perspective the riskiest form of contract is
Strong Matrix Which organization does conflict occur the most in managing projects
Multiplying the risk's probability of occurrence by its estimated impact Calculating the expected monetary value (EMV) of a project risk is found by....
IT indicates that there is a range of possible outcomes One advantages of sensitivity analysis is?
Phase results are verified and documented Administrative closure for the feasibility phase of a project requires that....
Project Team In a strong Matrix project organization, meeting the quality requirments for the worked performed is the responsibility of the....
Identifying, assessing, responding to Project Risk Mgmt includes the processes concerned with _____, ______ and ______ .
Has a specific purpose Creates specific results, Has a start a nd finish Temporary, Could be progressively elaborated as more is learn Characterisitics of Project(5)
Probability of Occurrence, impact on project objectives, root cause 3 elements that are needed to fully id risks
RAM...Responsibility Assignment Matrix Mary sees that many tasks on her project are falling between the cracks and not getting done the tool that would most beneficial would be a ....?
Risk deflection Purchasing Insurance is an example of...
FIXED PRICE From the Seller's perspective the riskiest form of contract
Report the issue to PMI There is person outside of the testing center asking what was on the test...What should you do?
When the seller takes action to perform the specified work... When does a Unilateral P.O. become a contract?
Conceptual Which phase of the project life cycle has the highest uncertainty?
Expert power Power used that comes from the amount of knowledge a person has obtained in a specific area?
Sparingly An effective PM uses expert power...
IT indicates that there is a range of possible outcomes One advantages of sensitivity analysis is?
Phase results are verified and documented Administrative closure for the feasibility phase of a project requires that....
Project Team In a strong Matrix project organization, meeting the quality requirements for the worked performed is the responsibility of the....
Conflicting stakeholders objectives and expectations What is the primary reason that conflict exists in projects?
To determine if the project still makes good business sense and to determine how the project should proceed A formal project management process has review points at the end of each phase or stage of the project. The primary benefits of these review points are ____ and ______
Sender Who is responsible for making sure the message is clear?
Confrontational (Consensus or Collaboration) The most effective form of conflict resolution is?
Disposal cost because they usually occur at the end of the product life cycle What types of cost are usually overlooked when evaluating lifecycle cost?
Prevention deals w/ eliminating defects and potential defects, Inspection deals with fixing errors or defects as they come up. Difference between Prevention and inspection?
Grade deals with the characteristics of the product (Product w/ a lot of features), Grade is the category assign, Quality deal mores w/ how well something works. How dependable is the product Difference between grade and quality?
Conformance - company pays for quality in proactive way, typically up front in the planning areas of a project Inc morale, Nonformance - company pay for quality in a reactive way, on the back end dec morale and dec customer perception Cost of Conformance and nonconformance?
Population - Test every item, Sample Testing - you determine how the much of something must be tested to ensure that defects are caught Difference between population and sample testing?
Total Quality Management TQM quality philosophy that focus on proactive attitude toward quality with a detail toward statistical analysis to document improvement
Run Chart Used to track process over time, used to track performance such as how something works or schedule or cost performance
Mutual Exclusivity One choice does not include any other choices
Scatter Diagram Shows a pattern between two variables associated with a process. This helps see a correlation (or lack of) between variable, if it exists
Statistical Independence Is a state in which the outcome of process are separate from another
Run of Seven Rule States that if you seven consecutive data points on either side of the mean, without crossing the other sid, the process is considered out of control and needs investigation
6 sigma Modern quality philosophy that states that approx 99.999% of the everything a company creates or processes it executes are error-free
Team members - quality of their work, Project Manager - quality on the project, Senior Exe - quality standards at the company Who is Responsible for quality and at what level?
Cost of Quality Cost associated with conformance to requirements and the step taken to elimate non-conformance
Benchmarking Key tool for comparing a product or service to other standards
Just-in-time (JIT) An inventory managment process that lets a company have little or no excess inventory in stock- Ideally a stocks ZERO inventory with supplies arriving only when needed for the products being built An inventory managment process that lets a company have little or no excess inventory in stock- Ideally a stocks ZERO inventory with supplies arriving only when needed for the products being built
A Lag A delay between activities. You use it when there is some type of constraint in which something must wait before it can continue
Analogous or Top down Estimating Estimate is usually a total time or cost estimate that has no significant detail. Info can be created quickly - lack detail
Resource breakdown structure Displays a breakdown by resource type accross an organization. This breakdown makes it possible to view where resources are being used regardless of organizational group or division they are in. Can include non-H.R. resources as well as personnel
Bottom-up estimating PM and team work to create a complete estimate from the bottom(activity level) up and roll it up to the total estimate. Main advantage - detail accuracy. Main dis ad - can take time to create
Parametric Estimating Estimating uses statistical relationship between historical data and other varibles. This method is usually created by industry standards or experience. Main adv - can be done quickly and is usually accurate
Monte Carlo(Computerize) Analysis A computerized tool that simulates project outcome to determine factors such as time or cost outcomes or number of needed resources. Main Adv accuracy of estimates and the the "what if" analysis that can be performed. mis adv ramp up time and setup cost
PERT Program Evaluation Review Technique Formula use to calculate time or cost. It performs a weighted avg of the pessimistic, optimistic, and realistic estimates.
Rolling Wave Planning Concept that define a lowlevel of detail on WBS 4 immediate work being accomplished while work tobe done in future is only at highlevel of decomposit in WBS until its soon tobe start The concept that utilizes the progressive elaborate concept in planning.
Mandatory Constraints (Hard logic) A constraint that must be completed before subsequent items can start
Precendence Diagramming Method (activity on the node) A network diagramming technique in which schedule activites are represented by boxes (or nodes)
Discretionary (Soft Logic) A constraint that should be completed but is not absolutly required to be completed before subsequent item can start
External Contraints A constraint put in place by something external to the project team or organization
Critical Path Method Used with sceduling enviroments in which a forward pass establishes the easrliest the activities can start (ES) and finish (EF) and a backward pass establishes the latest the activites can start (LS) and finish (LF)
LAG Amount of time that an activity can slip or be delayed without delaying the finish date of the project (or activity or published project completion date)
Crashing Putting more resources on the Critical Path activites. Usually increases cost but minimal risk exposure
Project Slack The amount of time something can be delayed w/o delaying the PUBLISHED finish date
Free (or Total) float Invokes determining the latest that an activity can start w/o delaying the activites that follow it.
Fast Tracking Doing activites in parallel that are that are normally in sequence. Inc cost could occur with rework but additional risk could occur because of possible rework.
Critical Chain Method Approach for scheduling that emphasizes resources flexibility, by using duration buffers for resources, and leveling over the course of the project to accommadate
Zero duration A milestone has a ______duration
Milestone Schedule Schedule typically used in executive repoting with each milestone having a zero duration. It lack detail, generally listing only the main project milestones as diamonds instead of the Gantt bars
Logic Bar Chart (Gantt Chart) Chart used Project Management on the left - Talbe of information (Usually activities, dates, resources etc) on Right - horizontal bars showing when those activities are occuring use it to track the day-to-day.
Summary Schdule Shows an aggregate or rolled up view of the various activites at the summary level. It gives senior management, the project management team, a picture of how long the summary level work packages are to take, and what sequence they occur
Arrow diagramming method (ADM) Diagramming type where the activity is on the arrow or line and the circle or box connects the activities
A Lag A delay between activities you use it when there is some type of constraint in which something must wait before it can continue
A lead An accerlerant of an activity You use a lead when something can begin before its predecessor is totally complete
Resource leveling A schedule network analysis technique applied to a schedule that has already been analyzed by the critical path method. It can be used when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain time , are only available in limited quantities
Bottom-up Estimating When an activity cannot be estimated with resonable degree of confidence work within activity is decomposed into more detail. Estimates are made to the smallest incremental level need and then aggregated into total quantity for each of activity's resource
Milestone list an output of Define Activites that identies all milestones and indicated whether the milestone is mandatory
Activity List (Output of Define Activities A comprehesive list including all schedule activites required on the project
Business Need, Market Demand, technological advance, customer request, legal requirements Project Selection can come from the following factors (5)
Product Verfication, lesson learned, Updating records, reporting, archiving, formal acceptance Closing the project includes the following
When you perform project management part of the concept of Planning is to deal with items unkown. Here you must make assuptions for scheduling and bugeting. In most cases as the project evoles, you learn more about it. Know assumption as the relate to a project
PMIS Used for communication and information distribution on the project, not necessarily a hightech system but what ever is used for project communication on the project. Normally a mixture of technology and non-technology.
Close out any contract w/outside vendor, Deliver any required report associate w/closure (OPA update),Complete any close project or phase activite, Performed lesson learne, Complete archive of any project file (OPA update)Release resource 4 other project Sequence for Closure (for a project)
Its important to explain the impact of requested changes to the authorized requestor or sponsor and let that person make the call on approving the changes based on the impact Know how to correctly interpret Stakeholder request project changes
EEF - Enterprise Enviromental Factors inputs to many process because they deal w/ variables external to the project such as government requlations and market conditions. Examples are org structure govt standards, personnel, policies business market
Planning Process The process required to develop the activities to attain objective
Cost Time Scope What are the Triple Constraints?
Organization Process Assests (OPA) Inputs to many processes that deal with variables external to the project, such as imfomation systems and company policies and procedures. They can include process definitions, templates, organizations communications nee
Work Authorization System Formal or informal system used in project management to ensure that the work is done as planned. It ensures that right work is done in the right order at the right time by the right people
Finish to Start (Most common) Activity A must be completed before Activity B
Finish to Finish Activity B msut be Finish by the time Activity A is finish
Start to Start When Activity A starts Activity B can starts
Start to Finsh Activity A start before Activity B finishes
Requested Changes request made by someone on a project not approved and has no impact, Approved Change request that have been through the changes control system and approved. are now part of the project with any potential ipact now affecting the project Difference between requested changes and approved changes
Judgemental methods Forecasting method that incorporates intuitive judgement, opinions and probability estimates
Causal/econometric Forecasting methods that uses the assumption that is possible to identify the underlying factors that might influence the variable that is being forcasted
Time series method Forecasting method that uses historical data as the basis for estimating future outcomes
Forcasting The Process of predicating furture project performance based on the actual performance to date.
Variance Analysis An after the fact look at what caused a difference between the basline and the actual performance
Progress Report - shows what has been accomplished at a given time frame, Status Reports - shows the overall state of the project, S.R. IS THE SUM OF ALL PROGRESS REPORTS Difference between a progress report and a status report
Pull Communication Used for very large volumes of information or for very large audiences that requires the recipients to access the communication content at their own discretion, Inclued intranet sites, e-learning, and knowledge repositories
Push Communications communication method sent to specific person who need to know info, method ensure communication is distributed but donot certify it actual reached or was understood by intended audience Include letter, memo, report, emial, faxes voicemail, press release
Stakeholder Mgmt Stategy Strategy defines as approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholders throughout the entire project life cycle
Verbal and Non-verbal Type of communication that convey more than just words (inflection of voice body language)
Interactive Communication Type of communication method between 2 or more partie performing a multidirectional exchange of info. Its the most efficient way to ensure common understanding by all participant on specified topics, and incls meetings, and phones calls video conferencing
Communications requirement analysis Tool that factors in the communications requirments to ensure they are properly address in the communication Mgmt plan
Internal comm Commuincation within the project
1. legal communication and project documents, 2. When distance or extreme complexity are involve, 3. official situations, 4. Presentations, 5. primarily one directional communications FORMAL Communication should be used for the following (5)
Vertical Comm Communication up and down the organization
Horizontal Comm Communication with peers
Offical Communication that is on record such as as newsletter and annual report
Written or oral Communication in writing or oral
Unoffical Comm Communication that is not on the record
Commincations Mgmt plan Plan defines the communication needs of the stakeholders, the communications format and frequency and who delivers them. It can include reports meeting scehdules, changes process and contact information for the team.
90% What % of ttime does a Project manager spend on communications
Sender, Message, Receiver, Medium - type of format of the message 3 main components of the communication model
It means that you are current on commincation activity and that you are kept in the project communication loop as musch as possible What is meant by controlling communication?
Manage Stakholders Expectations Process of communication and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur
Stakeholder Analysis Techinque of systemically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interest should be taken into account throughout the project
Distribute Information The process of making relevant information availible to project stakeholders as planned
Indentify Stakholders Process of indentify all people or organization impacted by the project and documenting relevant infromationo regarding their interests, involvement, and impact on project success
n *(n -1) /2 Communication formula
Power/Interest Grid, Power/Influence Grid, Influence/Impact Grid, Salience Model Classification Models (for Stakeholder Analysis)
Plan Communication Process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach. Who needs what information, when they need it, how it will be provided to them and by whom.
Manage Stakeholder Expectation Process of communication and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as the occur
Report Performance Process of collecting and distributing performance information, including status reports, progress measurements and forecast
Salience Model Model describing classes of stakeholders based on thier power, urgency and legitmacy
Influence/Impact grid Type of grid that groups the stakeholders based on their active involvement in the project and their ability to effect changes to the projects planning or execution.
Power/Influence Grid Type of grid that groups the stakeholders based on their level of authority and their active involvement in the project
Influence/Impact Grid Type of Grid that groups the stakholders based on their active involvement in the project and their ability to effect changes to the projects planning or execution
External Comm Communication with customer, other project, the media, and the public
1. ID all potential project stakeholders, 2. Identify the potential impact or support each other stakeholder could generate and classify them ...ie the grids, 3. Assess how key stakeholders are likley to react or respond in various situations Steps for using the Stakeholerd Analysis
Manage Project Team Process of tracking member performance. providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.
Acquire Project Team Process of Confirming human resources availibilty and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments
Staffing Mgmt Plan Describes when and how human resource requirments will be met. It is part of the Human Reources plan wich in turn is part of the Project Managment plan
Fringe - benefits that everyone receives in the company i.e Ins or paid holidays, Perks- Special benefits offered being on a certain project of doing a certain activity Difference between Fringe and Perks
Develop Project Team Process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project team
Maslow hierarchy of needs Tool you can use to determine what can be used to motivate an employee. The key is to find out where someone is in the triangle and use items from that area to motivate
Self Actualization Maslow - Some who performs a calling, some with everything going right and feeling that life can't get much better
Expert Power Form of power is one that project managers must earn on their own.
Penalty Power Worst form of power to use. People experience negative impact if they don't do what is desired
Reward Power Best form power to use. Someone receives a benefit for doing something that is needed
Formal Power Type of power that comes from senior Mgmt at a company authorizing you to be a P.M. and whatever authority comes with that.
Referent Power Type of power comes from an attitude or presence that a person has and the corresponding type of influence this person has on the team. It could also come from someone who aligns with other people in a powerful posistion at the company or on the team
Concept of the Halo Theory "People make good project manager simply because they are good in their fields, regardless of background training in project management
Expectancy Theory Employee works a great deal on the project and assumes that the reward will be relative to the amount of effort or perceived effort
Scheduling What is the number source of conflict?
Confronting/ Problem solving Conflict Solution where there is an effort in which attempts are made to work out the actual problem. It is the best type of conflict resolution
Withdrawing/Avoiding Conflict Solution where the PM ignores the problem and hopes it either fixes itself or disappears
Smoothing/Accommodating Conflict Solution where there is an attempt to focus on the positive and distract the attention from the negative
Forcing Conflict Solution where there is an action in which a direct order to resolve something is given. It is typically the worst type of conflict resolution.
Compromising Conflict Solution Negotiation attempt to get all involved to give (concede) a little to find a common ground n reslution. sometime viewed as undesirable because when all give something up there is a potential that the solution will fail to meet all need
Facilitator Type of Mgmt style that helps keep things progressing making them occur. This style is not super proactive nor does it have ownership
Director Type of Mgmt style that drives the direction of the team or team members to accomplish specific activties and goals
Charismatic Type of Mgmt Style where managers have an appealing persona that makes team members enjoy working with them
Autocratic Type of Mgmt style where managers have strong or unlimited power and authority
Collaborating Conflict Solution that entails considering insights and views from a variety of sources and leads to consensus management which in turn leads to commitment
Mediator Type of Mgmt style that tries to find a common goal when there is a disagreement. This style is ideal when there are varying technical opinions or disagreement among resources managers
Coaching Type of Mgmt style that brings out the best in the team, bringing mbrs to their potential or where they need to be with regard to the project
Visionary Type of Mgmt style where the PM sees what can be, where the company or team needs to go. Focusing more on the big picture of the company, with others focusing on the day to day events.
RAM charts Responsiblity Assignment Matrix The tool lets the project team know who is involved in each area and what they are responsible for an in what area
Organization Breakdown Structure Shows a reporting relationship between the resources in a organization. This structure is typically shown in company division, departments and group. Typicall is does not show details related to project organization and work
1Self Actualization, 2 Esteem, 3. Belonging, 4. Saftey, 5 Physological Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Esteem Maslow - How we are perceived and feel about ourselves
Belonging Maslow- Friends, finding love existence, and association
Saftey Maslow- Items or elements that make us feel comfortable or protected
Physological Maslow- Basic needed for survival, such as shelter and food
Develop Human Resource Plan Process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and required skills reporting relationship, and creating a staffing managment plan
Earlier in the project, the PM does directing, as the project evolves the PM shifts towards coaching. As the project gets a great deal of work accomplished, the PM goes to a Facilitator. The PM then goes to support at project closure Describe Leadership and Managment Styles within the project managment life cycle
Form creation of team Storm refer to chaos that occur when people start working together Norm behavior start to normalize Perform activity that transpire as the team work as a team instead of solo Adjourn work is complete and the team is disbanded What is the Team development Life Cycle? (5)
Power/ Interest Grid Type of grid that groups the stakeholders based on thier level of authority and their level of concern regarding the project outcomes
Emphasis is on creating a written project scope statement to be used in the future project decision making. 1 What the project consist of, 2. What is involved to create the project, 3 What it is expected to do when complete ( to avoid confusion) What is the emphasis on defining scope? What are the elements (3) ?
Delphi Technique Process of using expert opinion, which could come from people already on the project or those outside the project or even the organization
Work Package A deliverable or project work component at the lowest level of each branch of the work breakdown structure
Create WBS The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller more managable components
The 100% Rule states that 100% of the work of a project needs to be represented in the creation of the WBS. What is the 100% rule?
Mgmt by Objectives Helps determine where a project fits in the big picture of planning at the company. It alos could be used to address a goal-setting technique which emphasizes establishing attainable goals and monitoring for variance then adjusting as needed
1 Has a specific purpose, 2. Creates specifi results, 3 Has a definite start , and finish dates, 4. Is temporary , 5. Could be progressively elaborated Charateristics of a project (5)
Project Scope Statement narrative descript the project scope incl major deliver project assumption project constraint and descript work that provide a document basis 4 makin future project decison n 4 confirmin/developin a common understandin of project scope among stakeholder
Organ brkdown show project organ is structure to accomplish it activtie Risk brkdown show risk potentially occur brokendown by it category Resource brkdown show type of it brokendown Bill of material incl component assemble use to build product/service What are the 4 breakdown structures?
WBS dictionay document that provides more detailed desriptions of the components in the WBS
Scope Baseline Provides details of the planned Scope for the project, this includes the Project Scope Statment, WBS, WBS dictionary. It is the key output in the Create WBS.
Code of Accounts Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure
Project Scope Statement Document that develops and helps attain buy-in on a common interpretation of the project scope. It can describe what it is, as wel as what is not, in the project
Mgmt by Objectives Process that helps determine where a project fits in the big picture of planning at the company
Planning Package A piece of the WBS between the control account and the work package that is used to plan scoped work which lacks sufficient work level details
Control Account Is a point placed in the WBS above the work package and planning package to help with estimating when all the details are not available at the woek package level.
Project Scope Statement, WBS, WBS DICTIONARY Elements in the Scope Basline
Uncertainty Component of risk that deals with the amount of information know or unkwown about the outcome
Plan Risk Management The Process of deciding how to approach and conduct the risk management activities for a project
Project Company, Client Technology , LEGAL Typical Risk Catergories for the RBS ....
Share Exploit Enhance, Avoid Transfer Mitigate What are the Risk Response strategies for positive risks or opportunities? (3) For Negative Risk or Threats? (3)
Mgmt Reserves Reserves set for risk events you cannot forecast potentially occuring on project
Contingency Reserves Reserves set for risk events that you know can occur on a project
Risk Ower The person responsible for a risk event if it occurs and is simialr to the person responsible for completing on activity
Work around A contigency put into action when a risk reesponse and any backup plans don't work. It is the reactive "wing it" reponse
Secondary Risk A jeopardy that results from the implementation of a risk repsonse
Residual Risk The amount of risk remaining after a risk response 9from the risk reponse plan) has been implemented
Monte Carlo Technique Mock-up technique that uses software to simulate project charactereristics to determine possible outcome
Impact The consequences (good or bad) or the amount at stake if something does occur
The likelihood that something will occur. it it "what are the odds of this occurring? The sum of all probabilities is equal to 100% or 1.0 What is probability ? What does it equal ?
Risk Reveiws Asses the documented risk and the project for any new risk. It helps ensures that the documented risk are still only risk and that their ranking, characteristics, probabilities, and impacts haven't changed
Risk Triggers Characteristics which indicate that a risk event is possible in the near future. They are identified when the risk are identified
1. Risk , 2. Tiggers , 3. Planned Responses, 4 Risk Owners, 5. Probability (likelihood) and Imapct from risk analysis A Risk Register can contain the following? (5)
Risk Register Part of the project managment plan that contains information about what risk could occur on a project, potential responses to those risk, root causes of the risk and risk catergorization.
Business Risk Risk that is typically uninsurable. Its a risk inherent in the porcess of doing business
Pure Risk Risk for which insurance can be purchased, thereby transferring the risk for financial benefit to the party accepting the risk
Risk Neutral A mentality of middle ground toward risk. It can shift toward either seeker or adverse depending upon the situation but usually falls in the middle
Plan Risk Responses Process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to project's objectives
Share Response strategy splits the responsibility (and benefit) of the risk with a third party (or parties) to maximize an opportunity
Enhance The response strategy takes steps to improve the size or capacity of the risk event by determing the key components of the risk and maximizing those components
Exploit Response strategy that takes steps to ensure the success and the risk of the event or project
Identify Risk The Process of determing which risk may affect the project and documents their characteristics
Avoid Response strategy involves modifying the plan so risk doesn't have to be dealt with. Basicaly to get rid of the problem
Transfer Response strategy involves reassigning risk exposure to another party. You do not necessarily eliminate all risk, but likely minimize some and create additional risk as well
Mitigate Response strategy minimizes the bad charateristics of the risk
Acceptance Response strategy tolerates the risk and deals with it. It is a valid option if there are no other options available
Contingent Response Strategy This strategy defines responses that will only be enacted if triggered by predefined events, such as a change of condition on the project or the need to accommodate worst case situation
Montor and Control Risks The Process of implementing risk reposonse plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risk, indentifying new risk, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throught the project
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis The Process of prioritizing risk for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis The Process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives
Risk Register What is the output of Identify Risk?
Contingency Reserves -deals with the known Unkowns and is the Project Plan, Mgmt Reserves deals with the Unkown Unkowns and are not in the Project Plan Contingency Reserves VS Mgmt Reserves
Plan Risk Mgmt The Process deciding how to approach and conduct the risk managment activities for a project
Describes how risk managment will be structured and perform on the project. It becomes a subset of the Project Mgmt Plan described in process 4.2 What is the Risk Managment Plan?
Risk Seeker A mentality of looking for risk or worse case, not being afraid of it. This is typically the early adopter of of new products, or the person or company that will to go for an all or nothing approach to a initiative
Risk Adverse A mentality of risk avoidance, selecting the low risk item of the sure thing is typical in this case
Benefit - minimize exposure to the buyer, Risk - new risk exposure - i.e. the seller finals to provide the services as promised Benefit and Risk of Contracting
Risk Breakdown Structure Breakdown structure to help break down the risk on a project. It helps create a brainstorming type of environment that allows the team to identify and categorize additional risk. Similar to WBS but the team creates it.
Brainstorming, Delphi Technique, Interviewing, Root cause analysis Information Gathering Techniques from Identify Risks - tools and technique
Created by: mfwhite817
 

 



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