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Motor Learning

motor behavior - motor learning

what is motor learning? SET OF PROCESSES associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the CAPABILITY FOR PRODUCING SKILLED MOMVEMENT
what is motor performance? An observable attempt to produce voluntary movement
How is motor performance seen during practice sessions: temporary or permanent? Temporary - it is susceptible of fluctuations due to temporary factors
Recovery of Function for motor learning involve? it involves the reorganization of both perception and action systems in relation to specific tasks and environments
Information processing of motor learning Stimulus identification, response selection, response programming
describe the stimulus-identification stage of the information processing of motor learning detection and processing of stimulus stimulus detection - stimulus is sensed and processed for meaning pattern recognition - recognition of stimulus as part of a meaningful pattern
A stimulus is sensed and processed describes what stage of information processing? Stimulus detection - stimulus identification stage
Pattern recognition - re?cognition of a stimulus as part of a meaningful pattern is part of what stage of information processing Stimulus identification stage
describe the response-selection stage of information processing decision on response to make or not to make larger number of stimulus-response alternatives makes response selection longer stimulus-response compatibility decreases response time
the larger the number of stimulus-response alternatives makes the response selection larger describes what stage of information processing response-selection stage
what is the response-programming stage of information processing it is the preparation of a motor system for action selection of appropriate motor program ready motor system for action (feedforward or tuning of system)
the retention and storage of knowledge or ability that has been learned is called? memory
Learning is the process as to ______ is the product memory
how is Explicit memory (declarative memory), which describes Facts and Events, acquired? through processing and storage
where is explicit memory stored? medial temporal lobe and the hippocampus
Declarative (Explicit) Learning requires process such as? awareness, attention, and reflection
this type of learning is practiced in other ways other than the one in which it was learning declarative (explicit) learning
this type of learning involved four different types of processing: encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval declarative (explicit) learning
what are the four types of processing for declarative learning? encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval
procedural (implicit) learning involved improvements are that are: sudden or gradual gradual and with practice
the goal of procedural (implicit) learning is for the action to become? automatic - without conscious thought or attention
procedural learning involves: a number of different subtypes, each controlled by different parts of the brain or only one subtype which is controlled my a specific motor program? number of subtypes, each controlled by different parts of the brain
nondeclarative (implicit) learning, involves what categories? procedural (striatum), priming (neocortex), associative (emotional - amygdala, skeletal musculature - cerebellum) and nonassociative (reflex pathways)
Nonassociative memory includes these two forms of learning habitation and sensitization
habituation? a decreased response that occurs as a result of repeated exposure to a non-painful stimulus - involves reflex pathways
Sensitization? an increased responsiveness following a threatening or noxious stimulus - involves reflex pathways
associative memory involves what two forms of learning? classical and operant conditioning
through associative forms of learning what happens? a person learns to predict relationships which can involve the cerebellum and premotor cortex
classical conditioning consists of learning to pair two stimuli
operant, or instrumental conditioning trial and error learning learn about the relationship between behavior and the consequence of that behavior ex.) lab rat finds lever, pushes level, and food is dispensed. After repeated trials, learns to associate lever with food
what is Law of Effect? behaviors that are rewarded tend to be repeated behaviors that are followed by negative stimuli (punishment) are usually not repeated
the Law of Effect is based off of what form of learning? associative forms of learning - operant conditioning
this term describes a procedural memory. It helps with formation of movements. Speed, precision, accuracy, and efficiency are involved. It is both implicit and explicit Motor Skill
this is the highest and most complex form of movement activity motor skill
the model of memory includes what three topics? short-term sensory store-->short-term memory-->long-term memory
what is the short-term sensory store? most peripheral memory system. Holds incoming information by modality (visual, auditory) until person identifies it. Believed to me limited in capacity and extremely brief in duration
if we have trouble with the peripheral system, we will have a problem with? short-term sensory store
what is short-term memory selective attention selects some information for further processing. Allows people to retrieve, rehearse, process, and transfer information to long-term memory. Believe to be limited in capacity and brief in duration ( 7 plus/minus 2 bits of info)
Alzheimer's patients have trouble with this short-term memory
this is important to for it to become processed by selective attention for processing short-term memory
describe long-term memory holds well-learned information and experiences. believed to be vast in capacity and unlimited in duration. short-term phase (sensitization) and long-term phase involving protein synthesis and structural changes
the short-term phase of long term memory involves? sensitization - changes in preexisting protein structures
the long-term phase of long-term memory involves? protein synthesis of new protein which is genetically influence. This influence also encompasses the growth of new synaptic connections
What is Adam's closed-loop theory sensory feedback used for the ongoing production of skilled movement
Adam's closed-loop theory utilizes two traces. What are they? Memory Trace & Perceptual trace
Adam's closed-loop theory consists of memory trace. What is memory trace? used in the selection and initiation of the movement (type of motor program) - the correct motor program
Adam's closed-loop theory consists of perceptual trace. What is perceptual trace? built up over a period of practice and become the internal reference of correctness. "what we are going to compare to" "reference of correctness"
the more we use a movement the stronger it gets without error describes what theory? Adam's closed-loop theory.
the fewer the errors & fewer the variations, the quicker we are at laying down perceptual trace. This describes what theory? Adam's closed-loop theory
Created by: copl0723
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