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Pharm test #2

drugs that influence the force or energy of muscular (heart) contractions. Inotropic agents
These drugs influence the rate of the heartbeat Chronotropic agents
Drugs that influence the conduction of electrical impulses. Dromotropic
One of the oldest and most effective groups of cardiac drugs cardiac glycosides
The primary beneficial effect of a cardiac glycoside is thought to be an increase in __________ _____________ myocardial contractility
When the action of ATPase enzyme in inhibited, the cellular sodium and calcium levels (increase or decrease) increase
A common cardiac dysrhythmia involving atrial contractions that are so rapid that they prevent full repolarization of myocardial fibers between heartbeats. Atrial fibrillation (A-fib); or atrial flutter
Cardiac glycosides are primarily used in the treatment of heart failure and _______________ dysrhythmias. supraventricular (such as A-fib and atrial flutter)
This drug has a very narrow therapeutic index, thus observation for possible development of toxic symptoms is essential. digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps)
Normal therapeutic blood levels of digoxin should be between ______ and _______ng/mL 0.5 and 2 ng/mL (higher if being used to treat A-fib)
This drug is the antidote for severe digoxin overdose digoxin immune Fab (Digibind, DigiFab)
One of the many assessments that must be done before administering digoxin is to check ______ rate for __________ pulse (apical and radial) for 1 full minute (less than 60 or more than 120 - not advisable to administer digoxin)
Patients taking digoxin are encouraged to consume foods high in __________ potassium
When teaching a patient about the signs and symptoms of cardiac glycoside toxicity, the nurse should alert the patient to watch for what type of visual disturbances? flickering lights or halos around lights
Chest pain occurring when the heart's supply of blood carrying oxygen and energy-rich nutrients is insufficient to meet the demands of the heart is called _________ __________ angina pectoris
The 3 main classes of drugs used to treat angina pectoris are... nitrates and nitrites, the beta-blockers and the calcium-channel blockers (CCBs)
____________ have long been the mainstay of both the prophylaxis and treatment for angina and other cardiac problems. nitrates
Nitrates (dilate or constrict) blood vessels dilate
The most common undesirable side effect associated with nitrates is _____________ headache
Nitrate antianginal drugs can produce additive ___________ effects when taken in combination with alcohol, beta-blockers and CCBs hypotensive
For which drug do we need to teach patients that they should avoid using antacids or eating dairy products 2 hours before or after taking medication to avoid interference with the with the drug? digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps)
For which drug do we teach patients to weigh themselves daily, at the same time of each day and with the same amount of clothing on because weight is an important indicator of fluid volume overload or exacerbation of heart failure? digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps)
For which drug do we teach patients to take their own radial pulse before each dose? digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps)
atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol and propranolol are beta-blockers that are approved as ___________ drugs. antianginal
beta-blockers are most effective in the treatment of which kind of angina? exertional angina (caused by exercise; for some elderly pts, this may just be activities of daily living)
calcium channel blockers (CCBs) promote the _____________ of heart and vessels relaxation
Is diltiazem (Cardizem) a nitrate, a beta-blocker or a CCB? it is a CCB
If nitrite-induced vasodilation occurs too rapidly , the cardiovascular system overcompensates and increases the heart rate, a condition referred to as ________ ____________ reflex tachycardia
Which antihypertensive drug works by stimulating the a-2 adrenergic receptors in the brain? clonidine (Catapres)
loop diuretics are also called _______-________ diuretics potassium-wasting
About 90% of the cases of HTN are (primary or secondary) HTN primary (or "essential" or "idiopathic"): the specific cause is unknown
One very common adverse effect of almost all antihypertensive drugs is _________ ___________ in male patients sexual dysfunction (the most common reason for noncompliance with this type of drug therapy)
Which two classes of antihypertensive drugs have been found to be more effective in lowering BP in whites than in African Americans? beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Which two classes of antihypertensive drugs have been shown to be more effective in African American patients than in white patients? calcium-channel blockers and diuretics
Created by: KCdoula200



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