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Alimentary Canal

Digestive System: Ch 17

Name the four layers of the esophagus: fibrous, muscular, submucosal and mucosal layers
The _____ originates at C6 and is anterior to the vertebral bodies posterior to the trachea and heart. esophagus
The esophagus meets the stomach at the ___________. esophagogastric junction
Describe the centering point for esophogram films: T5-T6
What is the degree of obliquity for esophagram films? 35-40 degrees
The Val Salva maneuver is employed when the radiologist would like to demonstrate what disease processes? Hiatal Hernia and Esophageal vereces
What is the degree of obliquity for radiography of the stomach? 40-70 degrees
What is the best position to demonstrate the duodenal bulb and loop in the average patient? RAO
What position best demonstrates the duodenal bulb filled with air? LPO
What body type requires a large degree of obliquity? hypersthenic
What body type requires a small degree of obliquity? asthenic
Where is the CR directed when radiographing the stomach AP? between xiphoid and crest
Why is high KV necessary when radiographing the stomach? to penetrate barium
Why is low amount of time used when radiographing the stomach? to reduce movement caused by peristalsis
When centering for an AP stomach, the fundus will be filled with ____. barium
When centering for a PA stomach, the fundus will be filled with ____. air
When centering for a RAO of the stomach, the duodenal bulb will be filled with____. barium
When centering for a LPO of the stomach, the duodenal bulb will be filled with ____. air
What view of the stomach demonstrates the entire stomach and duodenal bulb and loop? RAO
Why is the trendelenberg position used during an esophogram? to demonstrate hiatal hernia and esophageal pereces
What is the recommended oblique projection and position for the best demonstration of the esophagus? PA (RAO)
The patient prep for a morning stomach exam is? NPO after midnight
Food and fluid should be withheld for how many hours before a stomach exam? 8 hours
THe expanded portion of the terminal esophagus is called the? cardiac antrum
What is the difference between an orifice and a sphincter? orifice = small opening; sphincter= muscle surrounding orifice
_____ are the gastric folds of the stomach. Rugae
Which projection of the stomach would best demonstrate a diaphragmatic herniation? trendelenburg (AP)
Routinely used method for examining the stomach: single contrast
THe muscles controlling the opening between the stomach and duodenum is the: pyloric sphincter
For which body type is the stomach almost horizontal? hypersthenic
For which body type is the stomach almost vertical? asthenic
The _____ is the most superior part of the stomach. fundus
What is pyloric stenosis? Narrowing of the pyloric orifice
A life threatening condition when the esophagus ends in a blind pouch refers to: esophageal atresia
What is it called when part of the stomach slips through the diaphragm into the thorax? hiatal hernia
What is it called when a patient has difficulty swallowing? dysphagia
What is the largest salivary gland? parotid
What is peristalsis? contractive waves
Dyspepsia is: indigestion
The distal portion of the stomach is called the: pylorus
Food enters the stomach thru the _____ and exits at the ____: cardiac sphincter pyloric sphincter
The external layers of the digestive organs are composed of fibrous membranes called the: serosa
The only major secretion of the esophagus is: mucus
_____ connects the duodenum to the ileum. jejunum
_____ connects the ascending colon to the descending colon transverse colon
_____ connects the jejunum to the cecum ileum
____ connects the esophagus to the duodenum stomach
____ connects the pharynx to the stomach esophagus
____ connects the cystic and hepatic ducts to the duodenum common bile duct
____ connects the stomach to the jejunum duodenum
___ connects the rectum to the descending colon sigmoid
The RPO colon demonstrates the ____ flexure. left(splenic)
The LPO colon demonstrates the ___ flexure. right (hepatic)
Where is the CR directed for a lateral film of the rectum? MCP - ASIS
Technical factors for an air contrast colon are adjusted. What technical factor is changed? Adjustment? Why is the adjustment made? kVp; decreased 15-20 degrees; easier to penetrate air
What drug is used prior to the start of an air contrast colon? Why? glucogen - stops peristalsis
The chassard lapine' method is used to demonstrate what portion of the colon? rectosigmoid, rectum and sigmoid
What is the required position, angle, direction of angle and central exit for a PA axial colon? prone; 30-40 degrees, caudal; ASIS
The lateral view of the colon demonstrates what area of the colon? sigmoid and rectum
What position is used for insertion of the enema tip? Sims
The centering point for a PA colon is: Iliac crest
What disease process does an air contrast colon demonstrate? polyps
What filming adaptation is necessary on a hyperstenic patient? 2-3 degrees higher
When radiographing a patient for an air contrast exam, if the pt is in the R lateral position, which side of the descending colon has barium? medial
What bony landmarks are used to locate the gallbladder? elbow and costal angle
Describe the location of the gallbladder in the sthenic, hyperstenic and asthenic patient: sthenic: R side level of elbow; hyperstenic: R side high lateral; asthenic: R side low and close to spine
The dosage given to the patient or a gallbladder exam is determined by the patient _____. weight
To demonstrate layering of gallstones, what positions can be used? decubitus and upright
When the gallbladder is overlying the spine, what alternative view may be taken to demonstrate the gallbladder in its entirety? IN what type of body habitus does this occur? LAO; asthenic
What color do calcium stones appear on xray? Cholesterol stones? white; black
The liver is located in the ___ quadrant and has ___ lobes. RUQ; 2
What organ lies in the duodenal loop? pancreas
Bile is needed in the digestion of ? fats
Hydrochloric acid and enzymes are produced in the: gastric mucosa
The colon has sacculations known as: haustra
What is the name of the main bile duct that leads from the liver? hepatic bile duct
The two main hepatic ducts join to form the: common hepatic duct
The proximal pouch like poriton of the colon is called: cecum
What is the name of the duct that transports bile from the gallbladder? cystic duct
What is the name of the flexure that lies between the transverse and descending colon? left/splenic
The common hepatic duct and cystic duct join together to form the: common bile duct
The pancreas produces: insulin, glugagon and pancreatic juices
What are two functions of the spleen? stores/removes dead RBC's and produces lymphocytes
THe outer portion of the sac that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is: parietal
The inner portion of the sac that lines the abdominal organs is: visceral
What is the name of the junction between the small and large intestine? ileocecal valve
What is hirschsprungs disease? absence of parasympathetic ganglia resulting in absence of peristalsis
The formation of bile associate with what abdominal structure? liver
Alpha cells within the pancreas are responsible for the secretion of: glucagon
The failure of the pancreas to produce insulin: diabetes
The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join as they enter a chamber known as the: hepatopancreatic ampulla
THe folds of peritoneum that support the abdominal organs are call the: omenta and mesentary
What is the cavity posterior to the peritoneum? retoperitoneum
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is controlled by a circular muscle known as the _______. sphincter of oddi
The colon is ___ feet and the alimentary canal is ___ feet. 5; 30
The ___ nerve is the most imporant nerve of the digestive tract. vagus
The specific exam of the biliary duct is termed ______. cholangiography
An ileus is a _____. bowel obstruction
An obstruction of the bile ducts causes: jaundice
The _____ connects the jejunum and ileum; The ____ connects the stomach to the other abdominal organs. mesentary; omenta