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RAD160 Digestive

QuestionAnswer
What quadrant is the liver located in? RUQ
How many lobes does the liver have? 2
What organ lies in the duodenal loop? pancreas
Bile is needed for digestion of _____. fats
Hydrochloric acid and enzymes are produced in the _____. gastric mucosa
The colon has sacculations known as _____. haustra folds
What is the name of the main bile duct that leads directly from the liver? hepatic duct
What do the two main hepatic ducts join to form? common hepatic duct
The proximal pouch like portion of the colon is called? cecum
What is the name of the duct that transports bile from the gallbladder? cystic duct
What flexure lies between the transverse and descending colon? left (splenic)
The common hepatic duct and cystic duct join to form? common bile duct
What 3 things does the pancreas produce? pancreatic juice, glucagon, insulin
What are the two functions of the spleen? produces lymphocytes, removes dead red blood cells
What is the outer portion of the sac lining the abdominopelvic cavity? parietal peritoneum
What is the inner portion of the sac lining the abdominopelvic cavity? visceral peritoneum
What is the junction between the small and large intestine? ileocecal valve
What organ does Hirschsprungs disease affect? large intestine
What portion of the digestive tract is most responsible for absorption of water? colon
What abdominal structure produces bile? liver
Alpha cells within the pancreas are responsible for secretion of _____. glucagon
Failure of the pancreas to produce insulin is? diabetes
The common bile duct and pancreatic duct join as they enter a chamber called the _____. hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater)
The folds of the peritoneum that support the abdominal organs are? omenta and mesentery
What is the cavity posterior to the peritoneum? retroperitoneum
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is controlled by a circular muscle known as? sphincter of hepatopancreatic ampulla (Oddi)
What is the centering point for esophagram films? T5/T6
What is the degree of obliquity for esophagram films? 35-40 degrees
The Val Salva maneuver is employed to demonstrate what 2 disease processes? hiatal hernia, esophageal varices
What is the degree of obliquity for radiography of the stomach? 40-70 degrees
What is the best position to demonstrate the duodenal bulb and loop in the average patient? RAO
What position best demonstrates the duodenal bulb filled with air? LPO
What body type requires a large degree of obliquity? hypersthenic
What body types require a small degree of obliquity? asthenic, sthenic
Where is the CR directed for AP stomach? midway between xiphoid & crest
Why is high kVp necessary for stomach radiography? to penetrate the barium
Why is a short exposure time used for stomach radiography? to eliminate motion from peristalsis
In the AP stomach, the fundus will be filled with _____? barium
In the PA stomach, the fundus will be filled with _____? air
In an RAO position of the stomach, the duodenal bulb will be filled with _____? barium
In a LPO position of the stomach, the duodenal bulb will be filled with _____? air
In what position will the entire stomach and duodenal bulb and loop be demonstrated? RAO
Why is the Trendelenburg position used during an esophagram? to demonstrate hiatal hernia or esophageal varices
What are the layers of the stomach wall from inside to outside? mucosal, submucosal, muscular, fibrous (serosa)
What is the recommended oblique projection and position to best demonstrate the esophagus? PA in RAO position
The esophagus originates at what vertebral level? C6
What is the patient prep for a morning stomach exam? no food or fluid after midnight
Food and fluid should be withheld for how many hours before a stomach exam? 8
What is the expanded portion of the terminal esophagus? cardiac antrum
What are the gastric folds of the stomach called? rugae
Which stomach projection would best demonstrate a diaphragmatic herniation? AP Trendelenburg
What is the routinely used method for examining the stomach? single contrast
What are the muscles that control the opening etween the stomach and duodenum? pyloric sphincter
For which body type is the stomach almost horizontal? hypersthenic
For which body type is the stomach almost vertical? asthenic
What is the most proximal part of the stomach? fundus
What is pyloric stenosis? narrowing of the pyloric orifice
What is the life threatening condition where the esophagus ends in a blind pouch? esophageal atresia
What is it called when part of the stomach slips through the diaphragm into the thorax? hiatal hernia
What is it called when a patient has difficulty swallowing? dysphasia
What is the largest salivary gland? parotid
What is peristalsis? normal contraction waves of the digestive tract
A ringlike band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural orifice is called a? sphincter
Dyspepsia is? indigestion
What is the distal portion of the stomach called? pylorus
Food enters the stomach through the? cardiac sphincter
Food exits the stomach trough the? pyloric sphincter
The external layers of the digestive organs are composed of fibrous membranes called the? serosa
What is the only major secretion of the esophagus? mucus
The esophagus is where in relation to the trachea? posterior
What connects the duodenum to the ileum? jejunum
What connects the ascending colon to the descending colon? transverse colon
What connects the jejunum to the cecum? ileum
What connects the esophagus to the duodenum? stomach
What connects the pharynx to the stomach? esophagus
What connects the cystic and hepatic ducts to the duodenum? common bile duct
What connects the stomach to the jejunum? duodenum
What connects the rectum to the descending colon? sigmoid
Which flexure is demonstrated in the RPO colon? left colic (splenic)
Which flexure is demonstrated in the LPO colon? right colic (hepatic)
Where is the central ray directed for a lateral film of the rectum? on MCP at the level of ASIS
How and why are technical factors changed for an air contrast colon? kVp is lowered by 15-20% because air is easier to penetrate
What drug is used prior to the start of air contrast colon and why? glucagon to relax the bowel
The Chassard-Lapine method demonstrates what portion of the colon? rectosigmoid
How and where is the CR directed for PA axial colon? 30-40 degrees caudal, exiting ASIS
The lateral view of the colon demonstrates what area? rectum
What position is used to insert an enema tip? Sim's
What is the centering point for a PA colon? iliac crest
What disease process does an air contrast colon demonstrate? polyps
What filming adaptions are necessary to demonstrate the colon on a hypersthenic patient? use two transverse IRs or center higher
In an air contrast exam with the patient in right lateral position, which side of descending colon has barium? medial
What bony landmarks are used to locate the gallbladder? elbow and costal angle
Where is the gallbladder in a sthenic patient? at the level of the elbow
Where is the gallbladder in a hypersthenic patient? high and lateral
Where is the gallbladder in an asthenic patient? low and medial
The dosage given to the patient for gallbladder exams is determined how? by the patient's weight
What two positions can be used to demonstrate layering of gallstones? upright or decubitus
What view can be used to demonstrate the gallbladder if it is overlying the spine? LAO
What color do calcium stones appear in an x-ray? white
What color do cholesterol stones appear in an x-ray? black
Which curvature is located on the medial border of the stomach? lesser
What is the proximal part of the small intestine? duodenum
In which abdominal region does the large intestine originate? right iliac
How long does it take a barium meal to reach the ileocecal valve? and the rectum? 2-3 hours; 24 hours
What position best demonstrates swallowing function in a single contrast esophagus study? upright
What two recumbent oblique positions can demonstrate a barium-filled esophagus between the vertebrae and heart? RAO and LPO
What is a major advantage of the double-contrast UGI over the single-contrast? better demonstration of small lesions on the mucosal lining
Which body habitus produces the greatest visceral movement when moved from prone to upright? asthenic
Why should lower lung fields be included in a PA projection as part of the UGI exam? to demonstrate possible hiatal hernia
For a double-contrast UGI exam AP oblique projection in recumbent LPO, how will the duodenal bulb and pyloric canal appear? gas-filled
For the single-contrast UGI exam with the patient recumbent, which projection produces the best image of a barium-filled pyloric canal and duodenal bulb in sthenic patients? PA oblique in RAO
For the UGI exam with the patient recumbent, which projection best stimulates gastric peristalsis to demonstrate the pyloric canal and duodenal bulb? PA oblique in RAO
What breathing instructions should be given for UGI radiographs? suspend expiration
For the double contrast UGI exam PA oblique projection in recumbent RAO position, how will the fundus appear? gas-filled
For the UGI exam with the patient recumbent, which projection best demonstrates the right retrogastric space? right lateral
To what level should the CR be directed for the PA oblique in RAO as part of the UGI exam? L1-L2
Which exam of the alimentary canal requires a series of radiographs to be taken at specific time intervals after ingestion of contrast? small bowel series
For a small bowel series on a patient with hypomotility of the small intestine, what can be done to accelerate peristalsis? drink a glass of ice water
What patient instructions should be given if cramping is experienced during filling of the large intestine for a BE? concentrate on deep oral breathing
How far should the enema tip be inserted for a BE? no more than 3.5-4"
For the PA projection during a BE, why should the patient be placed in a slight Trendelenburg position? to help separate overlapping loops of the distal bowel
Which structures are best demonstrated with AP or PA axial projections during a BE? sigmoid and rectum
How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the PA axial during BE? 30-40 degrees caudal
Which structure of the large intestine is of primary interest for the PA oblique in RAO position during BE? right colic flexure
What two oblique projections can demonstrate the left colic flexure during a BE? PA oblique in LAO; AP oblique in RPO
What structure of the large intestine is best demonstrated if the patient is rotated 45 degrees from supine with the right side away from the table during BE? right colic flexure
Which BE projection requires a 10x12 IR lengthwise at the level of ASIS? lateral
Which BE projection does not require colic flexures to be included? lateral
Created by: SCash21