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Imaging Adler CH 2&3

What makes the rotor spin? Stator
Where does the source of electrons come from? Cathode
3 names for a positive anode are... target, source, focal source
What charge does a cathode hold? What charge does an anode hold? negative Positive
What is the boiling off of electrons? Thermionic emission
The tendency of the space charge not to allow more electrons to be boiled off of the filament space charge effect
what is the angle range for anodes? what is the most common angle? 5 degree- 20 degree angles 12 degree angle
what size filament would you use to x-ray extremities? What size for abdomen? small; large
Radiation leakage should not exceed more than________________. 100mR/hr
what is the atomic # for tungsten? 74
rotor speed goes up to__________. 10000RPM's
dropping one electron into empty hole producing electron photons cascaid effect
What shell are diagnostic photons from? K shell
What # does the tungsten k shell hold? 69 or 69.5
What type of interaction interacts with the electro magnetic field of an atom? Bremsstrahlung
What type of interaction interacts with an electron and uses the cascaid effect? Characteristic
In a Bremsstrahlung interaction the closer the nucleus to the incident electron the ________ the energy level of the photon will be. Higher
You will always have bothe characteristic and brem interactions unless kVp goes below____ than its 100% brem. 69kVp
Projectile in motion incident electron
Primary factors that affect quantity which of these factors also affects Quality? mAs, SID, kVp ; kVp
What is AEC? Automatic Exposure Controls
What is the maximum variable of kVp? +or- 5%kVp
% of voltage ripple for single phase generators; 3 phase 6 pulse; 3 phase 12 pulse; high frequency? 100%; 13%; 4%; 1%
What are the max variabilities of exposure timer? +or- 5% for times less than 10ms +or- 10% for times greater than 10ms
the amount of current supplied to the tube mA
the effective focal spot is ___________ than the actual focal spot.What principle? smaller; line focus principle
the steeper the angle the__________ the effective focal spot smaller
more intense radiation exiting the tube toward the cathode side The anode heel effect
thicker body part under cathode(-) end FAT CAT
3 components of inherent filtration the glass envelope, the surrounding oil, the window
any thing after the window is what type of filtration? added
the filtration that is permanently in the path of the x-ray beam inherent
inherent + added filtration = total filtration
the amount of filtration that reduces the intensity to one half the original value half value layer (HVL)
inherent filtration (window)thickness 0.5 mm Al
added filtration (apeture diapragm) thickness 1.0 mm Al
mirror thickness; total filtration = 1.0 mm Al; 2.5 mm Al
the amount of heat produced from any given exposure Heat Units (HU)
types of compensating filters wedge and trough
single phase GF 1.00
3 phase 6 pulse GF 1.35
3 phase 12 pulse GF 1.41
high frequency GF 1.45
Heat unit formula mA x time x kVp x generator factor =HU
on a tube rating chart what does above the line mean? At or below line? unsafe; safe
when tungsten starts evaporating and settling on the inside of glass envelope its called____ arcing
what are the 2 types of electrodes in a tube? cathode (-) and anode (+)
Higher kVp and thicker body part = more scatter
3 characteristics of attenuation absorption, scatter, transmition
other words for primary beam are.... effective beam and useful beam
anatomic tissue absorb and transmit differently based on their composition differential absorption
other names for coherent scattering thompson or classical scattering
to ionize you must have_____ or ______ energy = or greater
coherent scattering energy level below 10 keV
in coherent scattering there is____ energy transfered, ____ energy lost, ____ ionization just ________ in direction no, no, no. change
photon that has been energized photo electron
incoming x-ray photon interacts with an inner shell electron and removes the electron photoelectric interaction (in the body)
compton effect scattering in the body
x-ray photon interacts with nucleus of an atom and disappears results in creation of positron and negatron pair production
what is minimum Mega electron Volt? 1.02 MeV
PET Positron Emission Tomography
X-ray photon absorbed by nucleus, its raised to an excited state and emits a nuclear fragment Photodisentigration
photodisentigration requires a minimum of ____MeV 10 MeV
Attenuation is decreased 50% for each __ to __ cm of tissue thickness 4 to 5 cm
Higher kVp _______ energy and _________ beam attenuation increase; decrease
remnant or exit radiation is composed of _________ & __________ radiation scattered, transmitted
2 types of distortion shape or size (true/ magnification)
the way a beam is going through matter projection
for digital Radiography (DR) window width (WW) is ____________ and window level (WL)is __________ contrast; brightness
amount of light transmitted through film density
more differences in color less difference in color high contrast short scale low contrast long scale
smallest object recorded- sharpness- spatial resolution recorded detail
Created by: 100001051240277