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Psych 230 FINAL EXAM

Final Exam

What are some characteristics of adolescent friendships? Fewer best friends, friends are more similar over time, intimacy and loyalty are most important.
How does self-disclosure ( the ability to share information about ones' self with one another) change over time? In 5th & 7th grade- children disclose more to their peers and less to their parents. Around College- self-disclosure is relatively equal among the two. Adult marital status- individual disclosure increases with parents
What are some benefits of adolescent friendships? Provide opportunity to explore and share themselves, form deeper understandings, help with stress, builds a foundation for future intimate relationships.
When looking at the longitudinal study by Simpson on Attachment security, what does each age studied associate with security and what does it tell us about relationships in the future? 4th graders: security was identified w.social competence, Adolescents:___ higher quality friendships, *Findings 21-23 yr olds: secure attachment +social competence +quality friendships = positive adult relationship in their futures.
When do boys and girls merge their cliques together? Adolescence
In late middle school to early high school, what type of friend groups are seen? mixed sex cliques
After mixed sex cliques form, what do relationships between boys and girls evolve into? From mixed sex cliques, couples form alliances, until late high school when individual couples are comfortable to hangout alone.
What do casual high quality dating practices lead to in later romantic relationships? more positive romantic relationships
What do serial monogamous dating practices lead to in later romantic relationships? Less positive romantic relationships.
What is seen in dating throughout adolescence? Goals change, the quality of relationships with parents and friends contribute to our ideas of dating in the future, adolescent dating patterns also predict relationships in emerging adulthood.
How do married couples relationships with parents become affected with the presence of children disclosure wise? Married couples have highest amount of disclosure with their spouse. Married couples with kids have the highest disclosure with their parents.
What are the necessary aspects for one to reach intimacy versus isolation in young adulthood? One must hold a committed relationship with a partner. First they must have a strong sense of identity before they engage in a committed relationship. This is because the relationship involves giving up newfound independence and redefining their identity.
What is Eriksons psychological task in adolescence? Identity vs. confusion.
What are two negative consequences for one to fall under isolation in young adulthood? Loneliness and self absorption
What are the trends seen in marriage? Marrying at a later age, more cohabiting before marriage, fewer marriages yet the thought of marriage is still valued.
What are some predictors of marital satisfaction? Family background, marrying after age 23, 6 m. together before marriage, relationships with extended family, financially sound ( main stressor), family responsibilities, personality characteristics, timing of first pregnancy.
What 3 components are included in Sternberg's triangular theory of love? Intimacy, passion, commitment.
What is the main goal of Sternberg's triangular theory of love? Consumate love.
A relationship conveying intimacy and commitment but lacks passion is called: A Companionate marriage. Long-married happy couples.
A relationship conveying commitment and passion is: Purely sexual marriage.
A relationship conveying passion and intimacy is: Romantic love.
A relationship conveying only intimacy is A best friend relationship.
A relationship conveying only commitment is: an empty marriage.
A relationship conveying only passion is: a crush.
How does a secure attachment in childhood lead to other factors in an adult relationship ? One is comfortable with intimacy and they are unafraid of abandonment. This leads to a trusting, happy, friendship.
How does an avoidance attachment in childhood lead to other factors in an adult relationship? There's a large stress on independence and holds mistrust and anxiety about closeness. This leads to a relationship filled with jealousy, emotional distancing, and little physical pleasure. (dismissive)
How does a resistant attachment in childhood lead to other factors in an adult relationship? They seek quick love and complete merging of the two individuals. This leads to jealousy, desperation, emotional highs and lows.(preoccupied)
Are couples having more or fewer children compared to the 1950's? And later or earlier into the relationship? Couples are having fewer children and later on in the relationship. (70% with children compared to 78% in 1950)
What is the new average number of children per couple (fertility rate)? 2 or fewer= declining fertility rate
What are three large aspects from the transition to parenthood? 1) changes in identity, relationships, and mood. 2) Roles often become more egalitarian (traditional) 3)Later parenthood & high relationship satisfaction ease transition.
When is the sharpest decline in marital satisfaction seen? After the birth of the first child.
What is the "social clock" Age graded expectations of life events
How is our generation compared to previous generations with the social clock? Our generation is less rigid. We see more flexibility with career and marriage occurring at later ages than the past.
How does following a masculine social clock contribute to a higher self satisfaction compared to a female social clock ( family then career)? A masculine social clock is finding a career then forming a family. This is associated with the most confidence and self-efficacy.
When does middle adulthood occur and how is it categorized? 40- 65 years old and is more event-based versus age-based. meaning varies across individuals and dependent on earlier life.
What is Erikson's psychological task in middle adulthood? Generativity- one focuses their attention on future generations and the wellbeing. versus stagnation- self indulgent, lack of concern for others.
How do self and well being change in middle adulthood? - Possible selves shift to a more concrete time focused self. - There are more complex integrated self-descriptions.
How does gender identity change in middle adulthood? Why? There is a shift, for both males and females to more androgynous roles. ( men become nurturing & women show masculine traits) - These are due to social forces such as the role of parenthood & biological changes in hormones.
What are the five personalities that help measure change in the middle adulthood era? Openness, conscientious, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
What are the average personality changes in middle adulthood? Increase in conscientiousness and agreeableness. Decrease in neuroticism.
How are individual differences changed in middle adulthood versus personality? Individual differences stay consistent over time unlike personality.
What are the two narrative approach scripts and what are their characteristics? Commitment script: someone who has had a long history of valuing others. Redemption script: A negative event that was transformed to a positive event.
Depending on how it's studied, cognitive development in middle adulthood may decline or show no decline. What two types of studies are associated with which outcomes? Cross sectional studies show serious declines in thinking and intelligence. Longitudinal studies show no decline.
What cognitive function shows an obvious decline in middle adulthood? Perceptual speed to reactions.
What is the new form of thinking in middle adulthood? Post-formal thought. This type of thinking is question driven and relativistic, meaning they accept various possibilities depending on situation.
Is the empty nest and a child on the social clock distressing or stress-free? stress- free.
What are some characteristics of grandparenthood? This is a valued time, they have an idea of immortality, there is some reinvolvement with personal past activities when visiting grandchildren.
How is marital satisfaction in middle adulthood? this is the most satisfying time in their marriage. There is less stress from children now that they are most likely independent. There is also higher self-acceptance now that they've established a family.
Are there more or less divorces in middle adulthood compared to early adulthood? less
Caring for parents can be seen in two ways, what are they? "the sandwich generation" - a negative warn out view of taking care of elders. "the intergenerational solidarity" - a loving obligation that helps solidify the gap between our elders.
How has reproductive functioning for women changed in middle adulthood? hormonal production slows down, menopause hits at an average age of 51.
How has reproductive functioning for men changed in middle adulthood? Men decrease in fertility and an increase in birth defects are seen with older men due to less quality sperm being produced.
How do cultural attitudes about reproductive changes influence psychological and physical changes? In the US, a negative light is shined upon reproductive changes = more psychological and physical changes. Other cultures with positive views = less physical and psychological changes.
Do most people experience a midlife crisis? no, changes may cause discomfort but not a midlife breakdown.
When is the young-old era and what "age" is it considered? Age 60/65 to 80, "3rd age"- continued possibility to hold an active, vigorous, life with potential growth.
When is the old-old era and what "age" is it considered? Age 80 & +, "4th age" - frailty & decline, experience less quality of life
What is an example of chronological age? Asking someone there age and associating that age with the established period of time. ie- a 20 year old is in the emerging adulthood era.
What is an example of functional age? Viewing someone by their quality of life instead of their numerical age. ie- an 80 year old may still be active and healthy, not quite determining them in the old-old age era.
What is primary aging? The normal physical processes such as hair loss, loss of height, grey hair, muscle mass decreases.
What is secondary aging? Not part of normal processes. disuse and disease
what types of memory decline in late adulthood? Working, Associative, and Episodic.
What types of memory decline little in lat adulthood? Procedural, semantic, and event-based prospective
What is working memory? The ability to simultaneously hold and use information. (multi-tasking)
What is Associative Memory? Associating pieces of memory to relavent information. Green means go.
What is episodic memory? Remembering a specific event. ( remembering where you left your keys)
What is procedural memory? motor skills that are located in a different part of the brain. This is the last type of memory to go. (tieing your shoes)
What is semantic memory? concerned with ideas, meanings, and concepts. (names)
What is event-based prospective memory? Remembering to do or attend a different event. The old are actually better at this than the young. (taking medication)
What is remote memory? The ability to remember past events. This type of memory is important to defining our selves. Begins to develop around age 4 and creates the most memories from age 10-30 from self-defining moments.
How is wisdom obtained? Through life experiences and age can help. Age is not a guaranteeing factor of wisdom.
What is Eriksons final psychological task in late adulthood? Ego integrity- One has come to terms with mortality and their life. vs. Despair- one has lived a stagnant, self-focused life with lots of regrets.
What is emotional expertise in personality in late adulthood? This just means with age, one is better at managing their emotions.
What does cognitive affective complexity in mid adulthood look like? This is when both positives and negatives are weighed in an event. In mid adulthood the pos. & neg. are integrated together.
What does cognitive affective complexity in late adulthood look like? This is when one focuses only on the positives of an event rather than integrating the negatives into a situation.
What is socioemotional selectivity? This just means, in late adulthood one wants to enjoy every moment of their life with the people that mean the most to them. They don't feel as obligated to be friends with those they don't like. Smaller networks are formed.
What are the three types of reminiscence when thinking about the past and which two are related to a higher well-being? Self-focused: stories focused on themselves, less well-being Other-focused: remembering shared events, higher well-being Knowledge-based: sharing knowledge with others from past experience, related to a higher well-being
What was the Berlin Aging study and what did it find? This study conducted to find if people tend to focus on hope or fear for their future. Those who hoped for self were connected to higher life satisfaction. Those who feared for self were connected w. declining satisfaction.
How do successfully aging elderly make choices? (3 things= S.O.C) 1. they SELECT their favorite valued activity over many. 2. they OPTIMIZE, devote time spent on eliminated activities on their selected one. Finally, they COMPENSATE and find creative ways to perform despite limitations
How well do elderly adapt in retirement & leisure Most adapt, 30% report a difficult transition. Involvement in rewarding activities leads to increased health and reduced mortality
Does marital satisfaction increase or decrease in late adulthood? increase
How can one have a smoother transition from married to widowhood? Close support from family but especially friends who have gone through the same experience.
What is a good indicator of whether an adult will care for their aging parents? The quality of their relationships
Women with an insecure attachment with their parents provided what kind of support to their elderly parents? instrumental support. Meaning they help care for physical tasks but provided no emotional support.
Women with a secure attachment with their parents provided what kind of support to their elderly parents? Both instrumental and emotional support.
What is the average life expectancy in western countries? a 50% chance one will live to 70 years
The maximum life span ( biological limit) 105 years
What is the programming theory on death? We have a certain amount of time programmed into our cells before death
What is the cellular theory on death? wear & tear leads to the break down of our bodies. environment based
What is compression morbidity? Postponing the onset of disease and prolonging an active healthy lifestyle.
What factors are linked to a better health and longevity? sleep 7/8 hours a night, seldom snacking, more frequent smaller meals, exercise, eating bfast, controlling weight, never smoking, limiting alcohol
What are some impacts of sensory changes in late adulthood? Driving is difficult due to decreased night vision, hearing, and reaction time. Hearing can lead to social isolation. Smell and taste decrease leading to food safety and nutritional risks.
What are IADL's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. THese require cognitive competence such as shopping, food prep
Dementia THought and behavior impairments that disrupt everyday life. (alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular dementia)
What test is used to screen someone for Dementia? The Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) it consists of orientation to time and place, repeating prompts, attention & calculation, Recall, language, complex commands
What types of memory leave as dementia takes over? A decline is seen in working, associative, and episodic (deliberate) memory.
What are the disease processes of dementia? Decline in executive function, inability to inhibit behavior and speech, and decline in semantic memory (names)
What were the old and now new notions of the brain and it's ability to recover after a stroke? Old: the brain is defenseless. New: stroke survivors can revive the damaged part of their brain & injured neurons can be recovered, if they force recovered neurons to resume their old job & send signals to their affected side w. hard work.
What has recent studies suggested about loss of neurons in the brain due to aging? old: the brains neurons die with age new: a small amount of nerves are lost. the connections btw neurons just weaken since the # of receptors have decreased, not allowing new information to be learned.
Why is exercise thought to help memory retention in old age? exercise helps keep neurons healthy by boosting production of vital brain proteins critical to memory. (BDNF)
What are the three pathways of dying? 1. Unexpected death 2. A death after a steadily decline in health 3. A drawn out process of both inclines and declines in health.
What are the 5 stages of Kubler Ross's Stage Theory? (DABDA) 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance
What are critiques of Kubler Ross's theory on Dying? - not everyone wants to talk about dying - Orderly stages are an incorrect interpretation of everyones dying process - there are many other emotions and experiences felt with dying unique to each individual.
What is a good death? Free of pain, still in control of life, continuing daily life & values, maintain and enhance important relationships, have a sense of purpose.
What is the hospice approach to dying? Palliative (comfortable) care in a home-like environment with comprehensive support for dying and their families. The family care for their loved one w/ minimal medical intervening. "team care" approach. Bereavement care is provided to fam for 1 yr post d
What is passive euthanasia? this is when treatment is withdrawn once the patient has fallen into a persistent vegetative state. Directions for care were previously documented in writing. ** MOST SUPPORTED
What is active euthanasia? This is when medical staff or others act to end the patients life at their request.
What is Physician assisted suicide? This is when medical staff provide the patient with proper aids to end their life. **MOST CONTROVERSIAL (legal in WA since 2008)
What are the 3 requirements for physician assisted suicide to take place? - must have 6 months or less to live stated by 2 dr.'s - must rule out psychological problems - patient is the only one allowed to take the drug
What were the top end of life concerns of those who participated in the death with dignity act in 2010 who have died? #1 concern: losing autonomy #2 concern: Less able to engage in activities making life enjoyable. #3 concern: Loss of dignity * the last thing on their mind was financial concerns
What are the three different stages of the grieving process? - Avoidance: a numbness to accept the death - Confrontation:most grieving happens, strong emotional reactions, preoccupied, review the circumstances of the death over and over. Risk taking and drug involvement take place in this stage. - Restoration:
Created by: laurenmm21