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Learning and Cog 4-6

Stasser's Learning and Cog Ch. 4-6 Terms

Law of Effect Thorndike's formulation that behavior that produces satifsying consequences will be repeated, and behavior that produces dissatisfying consequences will not be repeated
Law of Readiness Similar to the notion of biological preparedness and suggests that certain behaviors may be more easily conditioned than others
Law of Exercise The idea that simple repetition of a behavior will lead to strengthening
Law of Attitude Previous experiences, such as learning or deprivation, that may influence the ability of some event (food) to affect strength of learning
Law of Response by Analogy Similar to response generalization; the idea that animals will behave in one situation as they have behaved in similar situations
Operant Behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences
Three-term contingency conceptual system for classifying behavior in relation to antecedent and consequent stimuli
Antecedent Stimuli an environment event that precedes the behavior of interest
Reinforcers consequent stimuli that strengthen or increase the behavior on which they are made contingent
Primary reinforcers stimuli that possess reinforcing properties because of their biological significance
Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through experince or association with primary reinforcers
postive reinforcement process by which response-contingent presentation of a stimulus increases the probability of the behavior
negative reinforcement process by which response-contingent removal of a stimulus increases the probability of the behavior
aversive stimulus object or event that an organism is motivated to avoid or escape
punishment process by which response-contingent stimulus presentation or removal results in reduction or elimination of the response
positive punishment process by which response-contingent presentation of a stimulus decreases the probablility of the behavior
negative punishment process by which response-contingent removal of a stimulus decreases the probablility of behavior
response cost negative punishment procedure in which previously earned reinforcers are removed contingent on behavior
time-out response cost procedure in which a behavior leads to a period in which reinforcement is not available
Premack principle the finding that high probablility behaviors can be used as contingent reinforcers for low probablility behaviors
Response deprivation hypothesis any behavior restricted below its baseline level can then be used as a contingen
shaping reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
extinction elimination of an operant by withholding the reinforcer
spontaneous recovery reoccurrence of an operant that had been previously extinguished
stimulus control extent to which an operant exhibits stimulus generalization and discrimination
discriminative stimulus specific stimulus or stimulus dimension in whose presence a response is reinforced
differential reinforcement process of reinforcing an operant in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of another
schedules of reinforcement method of delivering reinforcement dependent on numerical and/or temporal dimensions of behavior
continuous reinforcement reinforcement schedule in which each response produces reinforcement
ratio schedule reinforcement scheudle in which reinforcers are delivered according to a predetermined number of responses
interval schedule reinforcement schedule in which reinforcers are delivered according to predetermined intervals of time
concurrent scheduleq condition in which two separate reinforcement schedules operate simultaneously and independently of one another
matching law Herrnstein's formula relating the relative response rate to relative reinforcement rate on concurrennt schedules of reinforcement
John B. Watson Behavioral psychologist, conditioned fear in Little Albert, pursued explainations of human behavior based on fundamental learning principles
John B. Watson the "mind" was a fanciful notion born on philosophical speculation (not experimental science) disagreed with introspection, focused on overt behavior
Behavior modification application of operant principles to human behavior having social or cinical importance
Scientific epistemology collection of ideas scientists hold about how to go about studying a particular phenomenon scientifically
Token economy behavior modification program delievered systematically to a large commnity or institution
Behavioral medicine application of basic behavior principles to behavior having significant repercussions for health and illness
Obesity one culprit is the modern high-tech lifestyle, sedentary jobs
Exercise foucs on elements of control, concerning the discriminative stimuli that sets the occasion for behavior, targets antecedent stimuli
Stimulus control extent to which an operant exhibits stimulus generalization and discrimination
Biofeedback technology-based process of providing an individual with visual or auditory feedback regarding some bodily or physiological activity
Behavioral momentum the idea that operants have a long and rich history of reinforcement may be especially resistant to change
Teaching machines arranges necessary academic contingencies needed for effective instruction
programmed instruction instructional method involving systematic arrangement of academically oriented antecedent-consequence contingencies
personalized system of instruction (PSI) Keller's operant-based instructional format utilizing self-pacing and unit mastery
Bandura Social learning accounts for much greater amount of learned behavior in humans than basic learning principles like operant conditioning, social learning theory, observational learning
Imitation ability to act soley by observing someone doing that act
Emulation imitative behaviors that produce the same consequence as the modeled behavior
Deferred imitation repeating an observed action after some temporal delay
Social learning process by which organims acquire behavior by observing others
Observational learning learning how to behave or not to behave by watching a model; benefiting from the behavior and consequences of another person
Ratchet effect progressive development of increasingly more effective techniques; benefiting from methodological advances
Encoding the process of placing information into a memory system
Storage the process of retaining information in memory over time
Cognitive neuroscience a scientific discipline concerned with the relationship between brain function and cognition
Self-efficacy an individual's degree of belief that he or she can accomplish some behavioral task in order to produce desirable consequences
Conditional discrimination a contingency in which the consequences of responding to one antecedent stimulus depends upon the presence or absence of a second antecedent stimulus
Generalized imitation the tendency to imitate behavior seen in others that has not been reinforced
Rule-governed behavior acquiring or emitting a behavior in response to written or verbal instructions
Contingency-shaped behavior behavior that is acquired as a result of direct exposure to behavior-consequence contingencies
Operant chamber Skinner’s experimental chamber that allowed the animal to be continuously housed throughout the duration of the experiment. Typically used for rats.
Behavior For Skinner, behavior is what an organism is doing, which encompasses a class of nearly infinite events
Consequent stimuli Stimulus events that are produced by, or occur as a consequence of, behavior. Thorndike and Skinner both looked into this.
Stimulus generalization Generalizing among like stimuli. A pea-green light is still recognized as a symbol to go.
discrimination Distinguishing between two given stimuli. A red light means something different than a green light
Controlling variables Stimulus events prior to behavior and those that follow contingently on behavior in the context of said behavior.
Ratio strain The breaking down of an operant due to an abrupt increase in response requirement
Created by: l_fren