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COMM 324 Final

What is an ideograph? How are cultural ideologies and popular discourses connected? Key term that reveals a culture’s ideologies and values, is characterized by slogans and are created by pop culture. EX: "Quality of life" "Unwanted Pregancy"
How do gender and media intersect? Media is a network of interactions that normalizes what we see such as identities and attitudes that can be applied to how we perform gender. Tells who and what women & men are.
What stereotypes of gender & power are often represented in media? Women - Caregivers, victims/sex objects, dependent, incompetence. Men - Breadwinner, aggressors, independent, authority.
According to Jeffords and Hanke, what role do hard and soft bodies play in television & film? Soft bodies: Victims. Hard bodies: Protectors, builders of society, symbol for the nation. Reagan policies relate hard bodies to patriots and American dominance.
What themes of the western genre are highlighted in Die Hard? Vocality - Protagonist speaks less than villain. Man uses violence to bring justice. Visually portrays "Reagan Hard body" can take physical assault without ceasing.
What is hegemonic masculinity? A culturally normative idea of male behavior.
What are the 5 dimensions of American manhood ideal? Physical force - Athletics Professional Success - Money Familial Patriarchy - Domestic Frontiermanship - Renegade Heterosexuality - Sexual
How does hip hop enable black men to negotiate these dimensions? Hip-hop allows for men to show professional success through flashing money, physical prowess through hard bodies/athletics, heterosexuality through crotch grabbing and hypersexual lyrics. Frontiermanship through being a social menace.
What is new manhood (as it emerged in the 1980s) and how does it differ from older notions of manhood? New manhood shares authority/decision making power, is emotionally expressive, shares domestic responsibility and changes social expectations/decorum. Unlike old manhood which was authoritative, unemotional and decisive.
Why does Hanke refer to Home Improvement and Coach as “mock-macho” sitcoms? These sitcoms mock hegemonic masculinity and play off masculine stereotypes. Shows a "failure" of masculinity and affirms male "cluelessness". Professional success v. personal failure.
What are the essential features of the comedy genre? Comedy contradicts norms, provides familiar frames of reference (real life situations), it is subversive (violates social norms) and conservative (resolutions affirm social norms.)
What is comic articulation? A semiotic process that is both subversive and conservative, offensive and inoffensive, and serious and ridiculous. Involves background expectations of plausibility and implausibility  which stem from the discourses of the social situation.
According to Susan Faludi, what are the roots of White male angst in the late 1980s/early 1990s? 1992 - Backlash: Undeclared war against American Women. did not like how women had jobs, less power for men 1999 - Stiffed: Betrayal of the American man. Economic/social instability. Gender power shifts. Sons heroes, but not heroes (Post-war mandhood).
How did the 1975 version of The Stepford Wives extend the narrative of second wave feminism? How does the remake of the Stepford Wives alter the feminist message of the original? 1975: Science fiction and not comedy, the men were in control of the scheme showing women's liberation ideals of 2nd wave feminism. 2004: A woman (Claire Wellington) created the robots showing women responsible for their own unhappiness. (post-feminism).
According to Dow, how are men typically portrayed in 1980s film and television? What is a “new age man?” A new age man shares domestic responsibility, nurturing fathers, shows emotional expressiveness and shared authority/decision making.
In 1980s television and film, who are typically the enemies of female characters? How does Fatal Attraction portray this idea? Women are the enemies of other women. Alex. Dan's coworker and Beth, Dan's wife become enemies.
According to Patricia Hill Collins, what is black sexual politics? Ideas and practices shaped by gender, race, and sexuality that frame black men and women’s treatment of one another as well as how African Americans are perceived and treated by others.
What is "new' racism? Centered on gender. Progress is framed around conforming to white norms. Black men are undermined and weak and black women are strong.
What is black gender ideology? How and why are hegemonic gender ideals of femininity and masculinity problematic for African Americans? Black women are seen as too strong, black men as too weak. Mass media & public policy depict blacks as either less able and/or willing to achieve dominant gender ideology.
What is the crooked room? What myths surrounded black femininity historically? According to Melissa Harris-Perry, how have black women responded to these myths in 20th? Hip hop age? Black women showed strength in the study. Metaphor for racial expectations of black women "standing up in a room constructed to keep them off balance."
What is social shame? What are its dimensions? Feeling shame in isolation or when a community expectations broken. Enforce hierarchy. sustain inequality. Create scapegoats.
What racial strategies have been used to resist shame? Distinguishing self from other blacks, Retreat into the race and reduce exposure to potentially shameful space and Rage. "Angry black woman" "Angry black men"
What are the differences between liberal and black feminism? Liberal Feminist: Equal rights w/ men. Black Feminist: Equal rights for all non-white ethnicity and for all classes.
Historically, how have US First Ladies navigated the constraints of gender ideology to fulfill the expectations of their office? They wrote autobiographies.
What is the rhetorical situation then prospective first lady Michelle Obama faced in her 2008 Address to the Democratic National Convention? What is her purpose(s) in this speech? Exigence: Diversity among the common man Audience: American public. Constraints: need to prove herself worthy to be the first lady Purpose: connect to the public and get their emotional support, showing that she has values similar to the public.
What gendered patterns do you observe of her communication style in this speech? Nurturing/talked about family mostly. Private sphere. Emotional support.
How is hip hop (genre/culture) connected to American cultural history? In what ways is hip hop distinctly American? Hip-hop culture supports violence like the idea of American Frontiers (Westerns) and it supports the idea of hypermasculinity like that found in American film.
What conflicts/tensions do you observe between gender, race, class and cultural identity in hip hop (give specific examples)? Self-reliant, neither fem nor powerless. (Salt N Pepa - None of Your Business). Embraces sexual agency; Rejects culture judgment. (Ain't Too Pround to Beg) Rejects "bad" men/misogyny (No Scrubs) Black Love rejects neg stereotype of blk men (What Good Man)
How is sexuality constructed within hip hop? In what ways do these constructions challenge or reproduce long standing American conceptions of male and female sexuality? Challenge black gender ideals by making themselves seem strong, violent, independent, self reliant, powerful, and sexy not promiscuous.
How does Rose describe the “dialogic” function of rap music? Why do black female rappers typically resist the label of “feminist”? They sustain an ongoing dialogue with their audiences about sex, emotional commitment, infidelity, drugs, racial politics and black cultural history. Feminist is a term associated with “anti-male” - black female rappers prefer the term “pro-women”.
What three categories does Rose list as the main ways female rappers describe male/female relationships? Challenging male dominance in the sexual area. Challenging men as representatives of hip-hop. Celebrating women's physical and sexual power.
What does Rose say is unique about Queen Latifah’s rapping and videos? She shows the strength of black women in history. She is self-possessive and independent.
Where and how did hip-hop emerge? What is the context that gave rise to its expressions? Hiphop emerged in New York City in the Bronx. Destruction /demolition of the Bronx through separation of West/South Bronx; South Bronx housed Blacks/Latinos, ignored by politicians once separation was forced.
What is the Golden Era of hip hop? 1987-1992.
When and how did hip hop change? Hip hop changed when big record corporations began to overproduce it/ when more record labels began to appear.
What features of frontiersmanship/American masculine ideal are prominent in hip hop? Gun play. Women are either “bar whore” or a liability. Violence fighting Violence (sense of justice).
What ideologies of gender and race do male hip hop artists share in common with 19th century slave holders? Regarding black men? Regarding black women? Black men as violent and aggressive. Black women’s bodies and sexuality as objects and commodities.
How does hip hop narrow the kind of relationship black men are invited to have with women? It narrows in the sense that music videos portray women as sex objects and not people thus the only relationship they are invited to have with women is sexual.
How do male hip hop artists respond to black gender ideology? They affirm black gender ideology by showing males are violent and hypersexual.
How did women fans/consumers rationalize misogyny in hip hop? They say it isn't about them so they don't internalize it.
How does bell hooks contrast contemporary and early hip hop? What are the differences she highlights between “new” and “old” cool? Escape v. Awareness Fantasy v. Sobriety Internalization v. Resistance of blackness
What rhetorical situation do hip hop rhetors face? Exigence: Identity, politics, economic poverty, power male & female. Purpose: Social critique, a voice. Constraints: Public sphere, social status, ethos.
What rhetorical obstacles do hip hop rhetors face? Audience: Mainstream, other blacks, commercial. Subject: Taboo, cultural history, cost. Ethos: Reputation "predator" Status "thug" "menace"
How is gendered violence socially constructed? Gendered violence reflects social definitions of femininity, masculinity, and relationships between women and men. Man wanting to be dominant.
How is violence normalized in media? Exposure to sexual violence in the media (music videos, movies, porn, TV) allows for people to deem it as more acceptable.
How is violence normalized by institutions? Family life in abusive homes. Law enforcement police reluctant to intervene with violent families and build cultural acceptance of violence. Language - Masks the seriousness of abuse "spousal conflict" "family problems"
What are the types of gendered violence your textbook identifies? Gender intimidation, sexual assault, intimate partner violence (cycle), sexual harassment, quid pro quo, hostile environment, genital surgery, gender-based murder, and sexual slavery.
What are the stages of intimate partner violence? Stage 1 Tension: The abusive partner becomes frustrated and blames the other for problems. Stage 2 Explosion: Physical violence. Stage 3 Remorse: Abuser appears contrite and remorseful. Stage 4 Honeymoon: The abuser acts courtly and loving.
What gender patterns can be observed about violence? How do men/women, boys/girls orient to violence? The man is seen as the aggressor. Men’s violence against women is usually much more severe than women’s violence against men. Women typically hit/slap men, but men typically give injuries that require medical attention.
What are the cultural themes of modern contemporary era (1950s-70s) 50s: Post/war Gender Stability 60s: Optimism (Kennedy election), Civil Rights mvt. Black mobility. 70s: (Kennedy election), Civil Rights movement/Social Change/Black mobility.
What are the cultural themes of modern contemporary era (1980s-90s) 80s: Reagan Era: Post-Vietnam rehab, cold war/nukes (mutually assured destruction with the USSR) 1990s: New Manhood/Men’s Movements Late 1990s: “Crisis” of masculinity, “warrior” manhood (Fightclub), new depictions of sexuality and gender (Will and Grace)
Created by: SDUMD13
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