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image quality test

QuestionAnswer
what does the inverse square law state the intensity of radiation is inversely related to the distance from the source squared
radiographic density degree of blackening or opacity of an area in a radiograph due to the accumulation of black metallic silver following exposure and processing film
how much of a change in mAs is required for there to be a noticeable density change on a radiograph 30%
brightness measurement of the luminance of a monitor or soft copy calibrated in units of candela per square meter
what are the controlling factors of density/brightness of a radiograph -mA -SID -post processing for CR/DR
what technical factor has a significant influence on density/brightness of a radiograph(15% change will half or double density) kVp
what are the influencing factors of density brightness -kVp(significant) -focal spot size -anode heel effect -SID/OID -Inverse Square Law -filtration -beam restriction -part -pathology -grids -film/screen combo -automatic processing
what is the reciprocity law density on an image should remain unchanged as long as mAs is constant
radiographic contrast visible density differences between any two selected areas of density levels within the radiograph
the display of contrast on an image is primarily determined by what during processing default algorithm
bit depth determines the number of shades of gray that can be visualized(2 to the nth)
what is the technical factor controls contrast kVp
what are the factors that influence contrast -subjec(size, shape, pathology, type of tissue -film -receptor(dynamic range and quantization) -scatter -grid -collimation -over/under exposed -mAs -SID -OID -filtration
what is recorded detail sharpness of the structural lines as recorded in the photograph
what is spatial resolution sharpness of structural edges recoreded in the image
what technical factors affect recorded detail/spatial resolution -motion/time -OID -SID -focal spot siz -IR
what is visibility of detail anything that affects contrast or density on an image
umbra distinctly sharp area of a shadow
penumbra imperfect, unsharp shadow surrounding the umbra
what are two types of distortion -size -shape
what is size distortion -magnification-deviation from true size(controlled by SID and OID) -
what is shape distortion -deviation from true shape *controlled by angle of part or tube
what are the additive pathologies we discussed. -ascites -atelectasis -cirrhosis -metastases -pleural effusion -pneumonia
what are the destructive pathologies we discussed -bowel obstruction -emphysema -osteoporosis -pneumothorax
higher atomic # will give more _______ density
what are the ways that cancer spreads -blood -lymph -seeding
what is the log base formula used by the densitometer to measure density log 10=Io incident light/ It transmitted light
what is the anode/heel effect absorption of xrays in the heel of the target, resulting in reduced xray intensity to the anode side of the central axis.
what are the options for kVp without a grid vs. with a grid *5:1=+8-10 *8:1=+13-15 *12:1=+20-25 *15:1=+30-40
what is the kVp rule a 15% change in kVp(about 10) requires you to double or half your mAs to maintain density
what can bit depth be limited by dynamic range and quantization
quantization bits per pixel
dynamic range range of exposures possible by a detector
Created by: bigad1982