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Exam #1

Social Psychology

define social psych changes rapidly and wide scope makes it hard to define
what is Law #1? the situation matters
what is the relationship between social psych and personality psych? in order to understand why people do what they do you have to focus on the person and the situation
what is a norm? social rules for behavior that were expected to follow
what is an explicit norm rules for behavior that are written down.
give an example of an explicit norm standard operating procedures, laws
what is an implicit norm? implied norm. people doing things that people or society says that you should do but they are not written down
give an example of an implicit norm raising a hand in a classroom (if not written down in the rules), facing the front when in an elevator, walking on the right side of the hallway
if the ___________ changes then the ____________ changes situation; norm
what is Law #2 Your brain likes it easy, it is a cognitive meizer
what are roles social positions governed by norms, social positions that have rules attached
what happened in zimbardo's Prison study in just 6 days in a fake prison "guards" because more abusive and "prisoners" became blindly obedient.
what are the aspects of the situation that matter? -other people -cognitive processes (what you are thinking) -Environmental variables (temperature, noise) -cultural context (where ever you are raised makes a difference) -evolution (everything you do has an evolutionary basis, survival of the species
what is a hypothesis a statement of a pattern of events or relationships among variables x---------->y (see x then you end up with y)
what are variables constructs that vary in magnitude or type (vary how much they are or the type of thing they are)
what is an independent variable is going to cause a change in something (only if randomly assigned) affect or cognition
what does ssg stand for subject selection grouping
what is ssg subject brings with them to the study, most common being studied: gender, age, race. some trait, characteristic, demographic, experience (something about them) that you cannot randomly assign to them
what is the dependent variable? effect...........outcome, score, result. variable that is measured
external or extraneous variable all variable that arent the independent, dependent, or subject variables
what is the key to external variables to be able to control them, or make sure that they are consistent or constant in all studies
what is lab research research that occurs in the lab
what is the advantage of lab research? you have control over the setting
what is the disadvantage of lab research? it is a sterile environment, it is not authentic
what is field research research that is done in the field
what is an advantage of field research it is authentic
what is a disadvantage of field research there are a lot of things that you cannot control
what do best research programs have both field and lab research
what is correlation? A STATISTIC FIST, just a #, non experimental
positive correlation move together in space ^^ vv
negative correlation move in opposite directions ^v v^
strength <----------I----------> -1 0 1
causation A------>B B----->A A E------>P P----->E / ^ c I \V B
population those people being represented by the results
sample actual people you test, have to acquire randomly
random assignment equate the group, control comparison, experimental treatment, received some level of the Independence variable
placebo looks like you are talking the real thing but really you are not aka a sugar pill
operational definitions how we define constructs or variables in our research
what must we have operational definitions for independent variable, dependent variable, have to tell people what you are going to measure
mundane realism what happens in the lab happens in the real world
experimental realism how much the experiment impacted the subject by what was going on
what is the 3 problems with research 1. Demand effect 2. Experimental bias 3. Double-Blind technique
what does social cognition look at? looks at manner we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about our social world
schema's mental representations, centered on a specific theme that help us organize information (example: chair, stop sign)
how do you influence on social thought attention (pay attention to whats already in schema) encoding (things that are schema consistent) retrieval (retrieve consistent stuff)
perseverance effect it is very hard to change a schema once it is created
self- fulfilling prophecy a belief in the way the world is going to work because of their schema
what is Law # 3 our brain has limited cognitive capacity
heuristics rules of thumb that guide our thought and require little cognitive effort (example: birds of a feather flock together)
representativeness heuristic aka duck heuristic. if it looks like a duck and walks like a duck then it must be a duck. the more an individual represents trace that we think match a type of person the more we think that person is, they are
availability heuristic we rely on things that readily available. some thoughts are readily available in our mind
automatic processing priming effect
priming effect you open up someones schema subconsciously
errors in social cognition negative bias (people are far more sensitive to negative things, ex. if you go on a trip and one bad thing happens then the whole trip is ruined) optimism bias (we have a predisposition to expect things to turn out well)
what do social psychologist focus on? the situation
what do personality psychologist focus on the person
what happened when they tested the add for zimbardos prison study found out that when they put prison study in the add that people who replied showed higher levels of: aggression authoritarianism narcissism than when then left off the words prison study
where does research begin? with a hypothesis
what are the 4 types of variables in social psych independent ssg dependent and external or extraneous
what do (1)x and (2)y stand for (1)independent (2)dependent
what is an example of positive correlation? height and weight. people who are taller tend to weigh more
what is an example of negative correlation? the amount of tv you watch and your grades. the more tv you watch the lower your grades are.
which ones of these numbers has a strong correlation? +.25, +.55, -.75, -2.35 -.75
what is a drawback of correlation cant enter causation from correlation
correlation coefficient the number that you calculator spits out at you
why is experimental method the method of choice can discuss cause, reason why you are allowed to do this is because you have a independent variable
random selection you randomly select a group of people from the population
demand characteristic (Subject bias, hawthorn effect) researcher has set up study in a way that they have demanded a certain response
experimental bias (not talking about setting were experimenters knowingly change data) the data is ambiguous or unclear and the experimenter interprets the data in a way that is consistent with their own hypothesis
double-blind technique occurs when subjects and researchers are blind to or unaware of the hypothesis in the study example: turn off the sound so you dont know what the subject is being asked (if on facial expression) or higher a research assistant to decode the data for you
do you have to tell subjects how you want them to respond no, but they do have to be aware of the procedures that they will be doing
attention we attend to schema consistent information that is consistent with what we already know
encoding also known as storage, we tend to encode or store things we attend to
retrieval we tend to retrieve schema consistent information
are schemas easy to change? no, refer to rule #2 the brain likes it easy
attitudes evaluations of some aspect of our social world
what are the types of attitudes positive, negative and ambivalent
what does ambivalent mean you don't care, neutral, on a scale of one to ten you choose five, the middle
components of psychology affective, cognitive and behavioral
affective emotional (if you like vampire diaries you are in a good mood when it comes on)
behavioral action (you are going to rearrange you schedule to watch vampire diaries)
cognitive thought (you think about watching vampire diaries and it is entertaining)
do you have to have all of the components of attitudes? no, if you really like something then you will have all three but it is not necessary to have all three
do attitudes predict behavior yes
do behaviors predict attitudes yes
give an example of a powerful attitude there is a tree on campus that you like, if you see that tree you feel warm and fuzzy. if you see it, it makes you happy. you go out of your way to walk by that tree
what did La Piere do in 1934 sent out letters to a 200 restaurants with a picture of a Chinese couple and said that they were traveling and wanted to know if they could eat in their restaurant. 90% of the restaurant owners said no, but all of them but 1 allowed them to eat there.
meta-analysis every piece of research on a topic and combine them all together into one analysis
what is an advantage of an meta-analysis you get a much larger sample
what did Kraus do in 1995? he did a meta-analysis on if attitudes predict behaviors and he found out that yes they do but not nearly as well as people probably think they do
how can we strengthen the link of attitudes predict behaviors you have to measure real attitudes, or else it wont be accurate
what is the bogus pipeline? said they were testing a new machine, can sense if you are pro or con. they ask a question and the needle moves in the direction that they thought. now the subjects think its real. they turn the machine around and ask question and they answer truthfully
what is attitude specificity you have to asses a specific attitude to be able to predict a specific attitude
true or false: if you asses a general attitude then you can predict a specific attitude false. if you asses a general attitude it does not help you predict a specific one you have to asses a specific attitude to get correct results
minimize other influences if i could do it i would do it but other influences are stopping me, "life happens"
direct experience you attitudes will be stronger if you experiences them yourself rather than hearing them from someone else. example if your friend tells you the pizza has been bad the last 3 times you are not going to matter as much as if it would of happened to you
vested interest you have more of an attitude towards it if it is happening to you. ex: if another school makes only girls wear uniforms you will be mad but you are not going to do anything about it, but if girls at your school now have to wear uniforms you will protest
bring the attitude to mind one reason our attitudes don't do a good job at predicting our behavior is it takes effort to think about them
how do you bring an attitude to mind increase self awareness, that makes them more aware of the attitude in question
give an example of how you would bring an attitude to mind put a mirror in the class room so that when people want to cheat on a test they look up and see themselves therefore raising their self awareness and bringing the attitude to mind or tell a person before they do a task
what is cognitive dissonance when we our attitudes do not match our behaviors
true or false: humans are motivated to maintain cognitive dissonance false humans are motivated to maintain cognitive consistency
what happens with cognitive dissonance UNWANTED tension and arousal
what do people typically do when experiencing cognitive dissonance people typically change their attitude, but they can also change their behavior
why do people usually change their attitude to get ride of cognitive dissonance instead of changing their behavior one is is easier to change your attitude than you behavior, and sometimes it is impossible to change the behavior because it has already been done
what are three types of we deal with cognitive dissonance insufficient justification effort justification post decision dissonance
insufficient justification festinger and carlsmith 1959 G1: boring task->2nd researcher->it sucked G2: boring task->said it was good->$1->cognitive dissonance->change attitude (it was good) G3: boring task->said was good->$20(sufficient justification)->it sucked
effort justification aronson and mills 1959 put in effort so much effort that even if it sucked then they would still think it was good because they put in so much effort (talk sex in front of old male professors ex, g1 hated it, g2 liked it more than g1 but less than g2 "so so group", g3 liked it
post decision dissonance Brehm 1956 have subjects rate household items and told them that they could take one with them but there were only two left (two of them that they had rated the same) when they scored them again they rated the one they chose higher the second time
if attitude does not equal your behavior then you have cognitive dissonance (along with unwanted arousal) then you change your attitude or behavior
what are other methods of reducing dissonance acquire new information trivialization (its so small that it does not matter) take mind off of arousal (overload them, give them a enjoyable task, or get them drunk)
persuasion effortful attempts to get someone to change their attitude
what are 4 things that helps the influence of the persuader credibility trustworthy attractive similarity
what happens if someone with low credibility tells you something and then you forget who told you it you ask your parents for a car and they tell you after you grad and your 4yr old sister tells you that Toyotas are good cars and then 2 years later your friends ask you what type of car you are going to get and you say youve heard good things about toyota
discrepancy gap or difference between what i think and what you are trying to make me think
who are you more likely to listen for: (1) factual (2) taste (1)credibility and trustworthy (2)attractive and similarity
low discrepancy different from what i think but similar
high discrepancy large difference from what i think
what makes the most difference someone with low or high discrepancy depends on credit of source,someone well known like t.s. elliot and they tell you a poem is good and you first thought it isnt then you are going to think that it is better if some student at a teachers college tells you it is good you still wont like it
one sided you tell someone all good things
two sided you tell them the good and the bad
when is one sided best used when someone is one the fence about an issue
when is two sided best used when someone is on the opposite side
primary and recency you are more likely to remember the first and the last things
what if there is no middle in the primary and recency effect it depends, if they are back to back then you will remember the 1st, if there is a gap then you are going to remember the last
to whom it is said audience ability to come up with counter arguments if you distract someone you make them think of other things and can change their mind
resisting persuasion jack brem 1966<--post decision dissonance freedom of choice, he was working and the door was open to his bed room and he closed it so his wife could sleep, she woke up and opened it. next night the door was closed so he opened it, his wife woke up and closed it
jack brem's study on resisting persuasion confederate gave subject a soda and then later the experimenter gave the confederate a big stack of papers to sort--subject did not offer help confederate did not give subject soda--offered to help sort papers
1st___________ then ______________. reactance, dissonance
aronson and mills 1959 effort justification
brem resisting persuasion, and post decision dissonance
La Piere do attitudes predict behaviors
festinger and carlsmith insufficient justification
Created by: mreel91
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