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CRIM THEORY FINAL!
|To understand the nature of crime, it is necessary to appreciate crime statistics.
|Gov. began collecting data in 1930. Sources of official US stats: National crime Victimization survey, FBI UCR , and Natiaonal Incident based reporting NIBRS Each use their own specialized definition of crimes, which may vary considerably among programs
|Uniform Crime Reporting Program
|Established in 1929 by FBI Designed to serve as a national clearinghouse of crime facts, from police agencies data. Early UCR data was structured in terms of seven major offense categories; an 8 was arson in 1979.
|UCR violent crimes
|Violent crimes: murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assualt
|Property Crimes: UCR *CRIME INDEX NO LONGER USED AFTER 2005.
|burglary, larceny, motor vehcile theft, ason
|crimes for which an arrest has been made, OR FOR WHICH THE PERP is known but an arrest is NOT possible. Clearance rate: crimes which are solved
|Subculture of violence thesis: Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti
|Stressed certain groups share norms in lifestyles of violence. homocide stats show that vics and off have similar soicodemographic char act. VIC and off who know each other well are disprop. rep. in homcide stats.
|Nature of homocides: Marvin Wolfgang studied homocides in PA
|Approx 25%were b/w family memembers, with women more likely than men to be BOTH off. and vics. Males were more likely to be killed by friends, or strangers than by family mem. Male was killed, it was done by spouse.
|Victim precipitation: focuses on victim characteristics that may have precipitated his or her victimization.
|a. concept not to blame vic but examine indiv. and situational characteristics that may have precipitated her or her victimization. b. Wolfgang identified alcohol use as a fact where the vic is a direct positive precipitator.
|Serial Murder is a criminal homicide involving the killing of several victims in three or more separate events.
|Charc. of serial killers: NOt legally insane or psychotic. Many are sociopaths but not all sociopaths are killers or involved in violent crime.
|Typologies of serial killers (4)
|1.Viosnary serial killers hear voices and have visions that are basis to kill. 2. comfort SK are motivated by financial gain. 3. Hedonistic SK murder for pleasure. 4. power seekers operate from some position of power over others.
|James Aland Fox and Jack Levin developed a three part typology of serial killers
|1. Thrill motivated killers (most common) involve sexual sadism or domnace. 2. Mission oreinted killers generally have a reformist of visionary orientation. 3. Expedience directed killers are motivated by profit or protection (killing to mask other crim
|Robbery; classified as a violent crime because it invokes the threat or use of force. It is also property crime because the purpose of the crime is to take the property of another.
|Classification of robbery is BASED ON LOCATION. 1. highway robbery (muggings)rob that occurs on st. 2. Muggins that occur in residences are types of pers. robbery. 3. Institutional robbery occurs in commercial settings.
|Major prop. crimes:
|Burglary, Larceny, Motor vehicle theft, arson