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WMS Science Final 8t

8th grade physical science

Define parallel circuit a circuit that has 2 or more separate paths for electrons to follow
Define mixture when 2 pure substances are combined so that each substance retains its own properties.
Where is the strongest magnetic field located? magnetic poles
List 4 examples of alternative energy resources? wind, solar, water, biomass
What is the law of conservation of matter? matter cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms.
How are the freezing point and the melting point of a substance related? the freezing point of a substance is the same as the melting point of the same substance.
Define chemical property. a characteristic of matter that allows it to change to something new.
Where are electrons located in the atom? in the energy levels of an atom around the nucleus.
Define inertia the tendancyof an object ot resist change in motion.
List & define each type of friction. static = prevents an object from moving. sliding - slows down an object that slides. rolling = occurs when an object rolls across a surface.
Define potential energy and give an example. energy an object has due to its position. ex: stretched rubber band
Define lever. a bar that is free to pivotg about a fixed point.
Define heat. thermal energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature.
List the elecdtromagnetic waves in order, starting with longest wavelength. Radio - micro - infrared - visible light - ultraviolet - x ray - gamma
Through which media does sound travel fastest? solid
Define transparent and give an example. objects that allow nearly all the light that strike them to pass through. ex: glass
Define circuit. the steady flow of electrons through a conductor.
List 3 characteristics of nonmetals. gases at room temp. bad conductors of heat. bad conductors of electricity.
Why do objects float? the density of the object is less than the density of the liquid it is in.
List 3 examples of physical changes melting, evaporating, solidifying
What do you need to know to describe velocity? speed & direction
Define balanced force forces that are equal in size but opposite in direction.
What is Newton's 3rd Law? for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.
Define inclined plane. a slanted surface used to raise an object.
Define wedge. an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides.
Define convection and give an example transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles. ex: boiling water
How are sounds produced? a vibrating object
Define wave. Rhythmic disturbance that carries energy, not matter.
Why are atoms electrically neutral? There are equal numbers of protons & electrons.
How do magnets attract one another? opposites attract: north pole of one magnet attracts the south pole of another.
What kind of energy does a burning fire produce? radiant & thermal
List 3 characteristics of metals. solides at room temp (except mercury), good conductors of heat & electricity, malleable & ductile.
Where is the mass of an atom found? in the nucleus; the protons & neutrons
List the 4 states of matter and explain how the particle move in each. solid = vibrate in place, liquid = slide past one another, gas = fly all over, plasma = move too fast to observe
What is the equation for speed? speed = distance/time
What is Newton's 1st Law? Object remains at rest or in motion unless a net force acts on it.
What does a circuit breaker do? a device designed to open an overloaded circuit and prevent overheating.
List 3 ways work is done. pushing something, pulling something, lifting something
Define series circuit. a path created for a current that allows only one route for the current.
What is a simple machine? List all types. A device that does work with only one movement and changes the size or direction of a force. (lever, wedge, pulley, screw, wheel&axel, inclined plane)
Define electric current the flow of electric charge
What is power? the rate at which work is done
Define loudness. the human perception of the energy a wave carries.
List 3 examples of heterogeneous mixtures vegetable soup, italian salad dressing, chocolate chip cookie
Define mechanical advantage the amount by which a machine multiplies an imput force.
List 3 examples of physical properties shape, size, density
Define compound machine. when 2 or more simple machines work together.
How do you calculate density? density = mass/volume
Define radiation and give an example. transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. ex: infrared lamps at restaurants
List 3 examples of chemical properties. ability to burn, ability to react with oxygen, toxicity
Define air resistance. upward force acting on an object falling through the air.
Define static charge the buildup of electric charges on an object
Define matter anything that has mass & takes up space.
List 3 examples of chemical changes. burning paper, digestion of hamburger, iron rusting
On a speed-time graph, what does a horizontal line show? show the change in speed is zero
Define momentum a measure of how hard it is to stop an object.
What is Newton's 2nd Law? Force = mass x acceleration
What happens to materials when they get hot? they expand
Define rarefaction a place where molecules are far apart
Define reflection when light bounces off a surface.
What is the speed of an EM wave? 300,000 km/s
Define wave frequency. the number of waves that pass a certain point in one second.
Define medium the material in which a wave travels.
Why do objects appear red? they absorb all colors but red, which is reflected.
Define refraction. when waves change speed when they pass from one medium into another.
Created by: jeffrey.hutto