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who devised the first theory of personality Sigmund Freud
refers to important and relatively stable aspects of behavior personality
is an unproved speculation about reality theory
a term or principle that is created (or adopted) by a theorist construct
· Offers guidelines that will serve us in the absence of more precise information theory
Theory of personality · An “educated guess” about important aspects of human behavior, which may be based on clinical observation or empirical research (or both)
found the first psychological laboratory in 1879. Wundt
four criterian that a tehory of personality shuold satisfy: description, explanation, prediction, and control
measured things like the speed of the nerve impulses, and searching for specific locations of the brain that controlled various organic functions Wundt Psychology
E. Brucke · Freud’s mentor. Followed Helmholtz creed.
freud named his theory psychoanalysis
freud believes that human beings are motivated by powerful innate forces called instincts
the activated insitic produces a psychology state of increased tension or arousal known as drive
the drive is what kind of experience unpleasant, such as hunger or thirst
the goal of all behaviro is to obtain pleasure and avoid unpleasure
Drive reduction restores the body to a previous state of equilibrium where no needs are active, and is primary way of achieving pleasure
Eros the ancient greek god of love, is synomyn for the sexual instict.
Destructive instinct all human beings driven by a death instinct
External and internal conflict must be channeled to socially acceptable rules. This is called Sublmation
Destructive and sadistic impluses may be sublimated by becoming a football player. sublimation
· Mental activity involves constant expenditures of psychic energy
· Libido attaches itself to mental representations of objects that will satisfy instinctual needs, a process known as cathexis
Saying wrong words, self-inflicted injuries, Freudian slips of the tongue, dreams all have underlying reasons, which are usually unconscious parapraxes
Repression motivated forgetting
Freud believes that most of personality and mental activity is _______and cannot be called to mind even with great effort. unconscious
information that is not conscious at a given moment, but which can readily become so, is described as preconscious
Topographical model the structure of personality in terms of unconscious, preconscious, conscious
teh act of relegating material to the unconscious is repression
Personality has three contructs Id, ego, and superego
Only component that is present at birth Id
what construct follows the pleasure principle ID
What construct is known as the primary process ID
what is the primary process permits opposites to coexist side by side, represents ideas by parts that stand for the whole, and condenses related conepts into a single entity. No sense of time and is not effected by experience.
this construct is known as I, and develops around the age of 6-8months EGO
Suspends the pleasure principle in place of the reality principle ego
Strangulated affect the cutting off of powerful emotion
A signal when we become aware of a conflict
Realistic anxiety is caused by danger in the environment, such as ominous looking individual coming your way on a deserted street.
Neurotic anxiety- concerns the harm that will result from yielding to a powerful and dangerous id impulse
Moral anxiety is caused by acts or wishes that violate one’s standards of right and wrong and includes feelings of shame and guilt.
Repression expends psychic energy in order to prevent a dangerous id impulse from surfacing anticathexis opposes the ID
you repress your anger and believe that other people are angry at you projection
o The transferring behaviors or emotions, often unconsciously, from one object to another that is less threatening; a defense mechanism displacement
observes and sits above the rest, partly conscious and unconscious superego
develops at the age of 3 or 5 superego
When forced with conflict the ego has three options or when a drive arises satisfy the drive, re-channel the drive (displacement), defend against it
Created by: ashley5273