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RADT 313 - Urinary

Review of the urinary system and contrast from Bontrager textbook

urinary system is comprised of what organs? kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
kidneys and ureters lie in what abdominal space retroperitoneal
which kidney is generally lower than the other right
what causes one kidney to be generally lower than the other liver
ureters enter the bladder at what point posterolateral aspect
the bladder and urethra lie in what abdominal space infraperitoneal
how many kidneys are essential for normal well-being? one
what degree does the longitudinal plane of the kidneys lie compared with the MSP 20
what degree does the transverse plane of the kidneys lie compared with the MCP 30
what causes the kidneys to lie at 20 degrees longitudinally and 30 degrees transversely psoas muscles
An RPO would be done to demonstrate what kidney? left
An RPO would be done to demonstrate what ureter? right
what landmarks can be used to center for a image of the kidney xyphoid tip and iliac crest
a condition whereby the kidney moves greater than 2 inches in position when standing upright nephroptosis
how much urine is produced during a normal intake of water in a 24 hour period? 1.5 L
the longitudinal fissure on the medial border of the kidney where the renal artery, vein, lymphatics, nerves, and ureter enter/exit the kidney hilum
what are the functions of the urinary system? regulate water levels in tissues, removing waste, regulating electrolyte balance
the total functioning portion of the kidney is called what? renal parenchyma
describe the direction of urine flow nephrons to renal pyramids to renal papilla to minor calyces to major calyces to renal pelvis to ureter to bladder to urethra
what are the three constricted points along the ureters where stones may get stuck? UPJ, pelvic brim, UVJ
the UPJ is located where? where the ureter and kidney join
the UVJ is located where? where the ureter and bladder join
the pelvic brim is located where? at the brim of the pelvis where the iliac blood vessels cross over the ureters
what is the trigone? muscular area formed by the entrance of the two ureters and exit of the urethra in the bladder
how much can the adult bladder hold? 350 to 500 mL
at what point do most humans receive a signal to void? when bladder capacity reaches 250 mL
what type of contrast (nonionic or ionic) is most expensive? nonionic
which type of contrast decreases risks of reaction? nonionic
what causes ionic contrast to react? it disscociates in ions in the blood
why is diabetes of concern when doing contrasted exams? if patient takes a metformin derivative, it should be witheld following a contrasted exam
how long should metformin derivative containing drugs be witheld following a contrast study? 48 hours
higher osmolarity contrast agents create what type of condition within the blood plasma hypertonic
A hypertonic solution injected into the blood system can cause dehydration . . . why? it draws fluid in from surrounding structures
what would be an example of a side effect following contrast administration? warm flush, metallic taste
what would be an example of a reaction following contrast administration? hives (moderate to severe), angioedema, tachycardia, bradycardia, hypotension
normal BUN level for an adult 8-25
normal creatnine level for an adult 0.6-1.5
what methods can be taken to reduce risk of allergic reaction to contrast agents? screen, pre-medicate, find alternative imaging
what might be commonly included in a premedication protocol? benadryl & prednisone
at what stage would the technologist declare a medical emergency for allergic reaction severe reactions
at what stage would the technologist seek medical assistance for an allergic reaction moderate reaction
what should the technologist do if the patient is experiencing a side effect of contrast administration? continue with the exam and monitor patient for other signs
when specific organs are affected by the contrast media injected how is the reaction classified? organ-specific
true/false: contrast media is toxic to surrounding tissues true
when contrast media "leaks" out of the vein it was injected into, what is this called? extravasation
how would you treat extravasation? notify nurse/physician/administrator, elevate limb, use cold compress initially followed by a warm compress, document
IVU stands for intravenous urography
IVP stands for intravenous pyelogram
VCUG stands for voiding cystourethrogram
In linear tomography, as the tomographic angle decreases, slice thickness will increase
name two common needle types used for venipuncture butterfly, over the needle catheter
true/false: you should wash hands PRIOR to venipuncture true
what angle should the needle be approached to the vein 20-45 degrees
which direction should the bevel of the needle face during venipuncture up
what happens if extravasated contrast does not get reabsorbed in the body? surgical lancing
if patient needed an IVU and BE what exam would be scheduled first? IVU
what methods can be employed to reduce radiation exposure to the patient? high kV, lower mAs, shielding (when doing nephrotomograms), reduce need for repeats by double checking appropriate centering and positioning
why would ureteric compression be used? enhances filling of the pelvicalyceal system and proximal ureters
when would ureteric compression be contraindicated? possible stones, abdominal mass, AAA, recent abdominal surgery, severe abdominal pain, acute abdominal trauma
what is an alternative to ureteric compression? trendelenburg
where should compression paddles be placed at pelvic brim just lateral to each side of the vertebral column on the anterior surface of the patient
what are different methods that contrast can be introduced for a study of the urinary system intravenous, retrograde through a catheter
how is contrast introduced for a nephrotomogram? intravenous
how is contrast introduced for a cystogram retrograde through catheter
when doing bladder imaging, you must get the bladder free of superimposition of the pubic symphysis. What is a common method for doing this? angle caudally
If a nephrotomgram image demonstrates the spinous process of the vertebral column, where region is this slice of anatomy from? posterior
where is the centering point for a KUB? iliac crest and MSP
where is the centering point for a RPO KUB iliac crest and 2" lateral of midline on elevated side
where is the centering point for an upright KUB iliac crest and midline
where is the ceentering point for an AP axial bladder? 2 inches sup;erior to pubic symphysis and MSP
how much angle is typically used for an AP axial bladder? 10-15 degree caudal
what degree of rotation is used for a LPO KUB? 30
what degree of rotation is used for a RPO bladder? 45 to 60
where is the centering point for an RPO bladder? 2 inches superior to symphysis pubis and 2 inches medial to ASIS
where is the centering point for a lateral bladder? 2 inches superior and posterior to symphysis pubis
true/false: contrast media should never be injected under pressure into the bladder true
what size image receptor (if available) should be used for the adult bladder? 10x12 - 11x14
what is the positioning difference between a male and female VCUG? male = RPO 30 degree; female - supine
where is the centering point for the VCUG? symphysis pubis
what technique is used for VCUG? 80-85 kV
what technique is used for AP axial bladder? 80-85 kV
what technique is used for oblique bladder 80-85 kV
what technique is used for lateral bladder? 80-85 kV
what technique is used for nephrotomogram? 80-85 kV
what technique is used for PA KUB? 80-85 kV
what technique is used for upright KUB? 80-85 kV
what technique is used for RPO/LPO KUB? 80-85 kV
what technique is used for AP KUB? 80-85 kV
If a patient has hypertension, will it take more or less time for contrast to be picked up in the kidneys? less
artifical opening between bladder and rectum vesicorectal fistula
inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis caused by pyogenic bacteria pyelonephritis
distention of the renal pelvis and calyces resulting in some obstruction of the ureters or renal pelvis hydronephrosis
most frequent malignant tumor of the kidney renal cell carcinoma
large stone that grows to completely fill the renal pelvis stagorn calculus
calcifications that occur in the luminal aspect of the urinary tract renal calculi
disorder marked by cysts scattered throughout one or both kidneys polycystic kidney disease
also called Bright disease glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the capillary loops of the glomeruli of the kidneys glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by a bacterial or fungal infection cystitis
abnormal rotation of the kidney malrotation
occurs as a fusion of the kidneys during development of the fetus horshoe kidney
kidney that fails to ascend into the abdomen and remains in the pelvis ectopic kidney
involves two ureters and/or renal pelvis originating from the same kidney duplication of ureter and renal pelvis
structural or chemical imperfections or alterations present at birth congenital anomalies
tumor of the bladder that is three times more common in males than females bladder carcinoma
stones formed in the bladder bladder calculi
an enlargement of the prostate taht generally begins in the fifth decade of life benign prostatic hyperplasia
eruption of wheals (hives) uticaria
infection of urinary tract UTI
backward or return flow of urine from the bladder into ureter and kidney vesicoureteral reflux
involuntary passage of urine urinary incontinence
excess in the blood of urea, creatnine and other nitrogenous end products uremia
rapid heartbeat tachycardia
loss of consciousness syncope
inability to void retention
inability of kidney to excrete metabolites at normal plasma levels renal failure
absence of formation of a kidney renal agenesis
protein in the urine proteinuria
passage of a large volume of urine polyuria
air or gas in urine pneumouria
diminished amount of urine excretion oliguria
therapy using sound waves to break apart large kidney stones lithotripsy
an example of a diuretic lasix
closure of the glottic aperture within the glottic opening laryngospasm
low blood pressure hypotension
blood in urine hematuria
glucose in urine glucosuria
feces in urine fecaluria
agent to increase urine diuretic
contraction of the bronchi and muscles making restricted air passageways bronchospasm
slow heartbeat bradycardia
bacteria in urine bacteriuria
no urine secretion anuria
subcutaneous swelling angioedema
Created by: hschmuck1