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Rad Protection

Patient Protection

What: reduces anxiety and emotional stress, enhances the professional image, increases the chance for a successful exam. Good communication
If an exam is going to cause pain, should the patient be told? Yes always
What is the best way to control voluntary motion? communication
What is the best way to overcome involuntary motion, such as a heart beat? short exposure time
What limits the area exposed by the primary beam and reduces both scatter radiation and exposure to the patient? beam limiting devices
What will improve the image and limit the patient exposure? beam limiting devices
What is the simplest beam limiting device? aperture diaphragm
-flat metal with a hole in it aperture diaphragm
-most versatile device to limit field size collimators
What are the three main parts of a collimator in order? 2 sets of lead shutters, light source, mirror system
What is the minimum distance of the collimator to the patient's skin? 15 cm
To be in proper alignment, the length and width dimensions of the light must correspond to ____ of the SID. 2%
Where are electrical sensors for the PBL system located? in the bucky tray on the carriage of the SID
How should the beam be collimated? so that it is no larger than the image receptor
- filtration built in with the product, such as window and oil inherent
How thick does the inherent filtration need to be? 0.5 mm Al equivalent
How much thickness does the collimator add? 1.0 mm
- any additional filtration added filtration
-is the combination of both inherent and added filtration total filtration
What happens to skin doses without filtration? it increases
What is the purpose of filtration? to reduce patient exposure
What time of wavelength/frequency does filtration remove? long wavelength/ low frequency
What is the min total filtration required for a kV of: 50-70 kV? above 70 kV? 1.5 mm 2.5 mm
What is the min total filtration required for mobile diagnostic and fixed fluoroscopic? 2.5 mm
If you use gonadal shielding, you can reduce a females patient exposure by how much? 50%
How much will a male patients exposure be reduced by using gonadal shielding? 90-95%
When are gonadal shields used? When the reproductive organs will be in the direct beam or within 5cm & doing so will not compromise the exam
When should a flat contact shield be used? when pt is recumbent and AP or PA
When is the flat contact shield not useful? in fluoroscopy, nonrecumbent exams non AP/PA projections
- suspended from the beam-defining shadow shields
What exam is a shadow shield not useful? during fluoroscopy exams
When is a shadow shield best used? When working with a sterile field
-enclose the male reproductive organs shaped contact shields
When are shaped contact shields best suited for use? oblique and lateral exams, fluoroscopy
When is it not ideal to use a shaped contact shield? around sterile fields
What is one way technologist can reduce exposure? with technique
Low mAs / high kVp will do what for pt exposure? reduce dose
Increasing kV or mA alone will have what affect on pt exposure? increase dose
What are three types of screen/film holders? Cardboard, conventional screens, rare earth screens
Of the two types of systems, conventional & rare earth, which reduces pt dose more? rare earth
If you increase grids, this will do what to dose? increase dose
What is the min source to skin distance? 12 in (30 cm)
If you increase the min source to skin distance, it will have what affect on pt dose? it will reduce pt dose
-periodical activation of the fluoroscope by the radiologist rather than lengthy continuous activation intermittent fluoroscopy
What affect on pt dose does intermittent fluoroscopy have on the pt? reduces dose
For fixed fluoroscopes, what is the min source to tabletop distance? 15" (38 cm)
For fixed fluoroscopes, what is the preferred source to tabletop distance? 18" (46 cm)
For mobile fluoroscopes, what is the min source to tabletop distance? 12" (30 cm)
-device that times the xray exposure in fluoroscopy and sounds an audible alarm and/or interrupts the fluoroscopic beam after the fluoroscope had been activated for 5 mins cummulative timer
Concerning female patients, what is the 10-day rule? x-ray exams should be limited to only the 10 days following the onset of menstruation
What should we do if the pt states that they are or might be pregnant? notify a supervisor
What are 3 safeguards that can be taken for an exam with a pregnant patient? proper technique, collimation, aprons
What are the 2 purposes of the consumer-Patient radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981? accredit programs & certify operators
Max allowable exposure rate at the table top should not exceed what? 2.1/ r for each mA of aperation at 80 kV
Under no condition should the exposure rate exceed what? 10 R / min
What is the max allowable exposure if 4 mA is used at 3 min? 2.1(3) = 6.3 6.3(4)= 25.2 R
What is the max allowable exposure if 2 mA at 2 min? 2.1(2)= 4.2 4.2(2)= 8.4
What is the 10 day rule? x-ray exams should be limted to only the 10 days following onset of menstruation
Therapeutic abortion is recommended after what amt of fetal exposure? 25 rad
What are the two purposes of the Pt Radiation Health & safety act of 1981? accreditate programs certify operators
What are three safe guards you can take when x-raying a pregnant pt? technique ( increase kVp-lower mAs) collimation aprons
Created by: erikasmith28