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Chemistry GCSE C4

Chemistry g

What is an alkali? It is a base that dissolves in water
Write the word equation for neutralisation Acid + base --> salt + water
What is the reaction of a metal oxide or metal hydroxide with an acid? Acid + oxide --> salt + water /. Acid + hydroxide --> salt + water
Carbonates also neutralise to give water and a gas: Acid + carbonate --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
What 2 parts is salt made from? Part acid, part base
Finish these equations of common acid and base reactions: HCl + NaOH ---> ____ + H2O _____ + CaCO3 ---> CaSO4 + H2O + CO2 2HNO3 + ___ ---> Cu[NO3]2 + H2O 2HCl + CaCO3 ---> CaCl2 + ___ + ___2 HCl + NaOH ---> NaCl + H2O H2SO4 + CaCO3 ---> CaSO4 + H2O + CO2 2HNO3 + CuO ---> Cu[NO3]2 + H2O 2HCl + CaCO3 ---> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
What type of ions do acid solutions contain ? Hydrogen ions H+
What is universal indicator used for and what are the steps of using it? It is used to measure the acidity of a solution. First you add a few drops to the test solution and then compare the colour of the solution to a standard colour chart.
Whats the base needed to make zinc sulphate? Zinc oxide, zinc hydroxide or zinc carbonate
Which salt is made when magnesium hydroxide reacts with sulphuric acid? Magnesium sulphate
Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction between HCl and ZnO ZnO + 2HCl --> ZnCl2 + 2H2O
Which ions are responsible for making alkaline solutions? Hydroxide ions OH-
Work out the relative formula mass of Al(OH)3 Work inside bracket 16+1= 17 Multiply the bracket 17x3= 51 Work outside bracket =27 Add all together 27+51=78
Explain why mass in conserved in a chemical reaction When chemicals react, the atoms of the reactants swap places to make new compounds, which are the products. They do not disappear.
What is the formula for working out the percentage yield? Percentage yield = actual yield / predicted yield x 100
Tim made 24g if crystals instead of 32g. What's the percentage yield? 24 / 32 x 100 = 75%
How much carbon dioxide is made in the complete thermal decomposition of 59.5g nickel carbonate NiCO3? ZnCO3 58 + 12 + 16 +16+16 = 118 CO2 12 + 16 + 16 = 44 59.5 / 118 x 44 = 22g CO2
Why do farmers use fertilisers? To increase their crop yields
What is the formula for finding the percentage of each element in a fertliliser? Percentage of element = mass of the element in the formula / relative formula mass x 100
What's the relative formula mass of ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4? 149
Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in ammonium phosphate 14 x 3 = 42 42 / 149 x 100 = 28%
Name three salts (fertilisers) E.g. Acid + base --> salt + water Nitric acid + potassium hydroxide --> potassium nitrate + water Nitric acid + ammonium hydroxide --> ammonium nitrate + water Sulphuric acid + ammonium hydroxide --> ammonium sulphate + water
Suggest how a solid example of potassium phosphate could be made. Outline all the main stages Titrate potassium hydroxide w/ phosphoric acid, using an indicator. Repeat titration until 3 gd results. Use titration result to add correct amount acid and alkali 2gether without indicator. Evaporate most water using hot bath. Crystallise remains, filter
What is eutrophication? Waters with very high levels of minerals created by fertiliser pollution, produces a heavy growth of algae.
What 4 things does the haber process use? - iron catalyst - high pressure - temperature around 450c - recycling system for unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen
Why does the Haber process have a high temperature? Means higher rates but lower yields so it runs at optimum temperature of 450c
Write the word and symbol equation for the Haber Process Nitrogen + hydrogen <---> ammonia N2 + 3H2 <---> 2NH3
Why is a low pressure not used in the Haber process ? The yield would be too low
High pressure gives the highest yields in the Haber process, but it's not Used, why? Very high pressures are difficult and costly to maintain. A lower, optimum pressure is chosen to give a reasonable yield at a reasonable cost.
What are the 2 reactants used in making a detergent? Organic acid and an alkali
2 reasons why detergents are suitable in cleaning uses 1. Dissolves grease stains 2. Dissolves in water at the same time
What does the hydrophobic tail of the detergent dissolve? Forms bonds with the oil/grease
What does the hydrophilic tail of the detergent dissolve? Forms bonds with the water and pulls grease off fabric/dish
2 reasons why a dry-cleaning method may be used Fabrics may be damaged by water and grease stains do not dissolve in water but do in dry-cleaning solvent
What are forces between molecules called? Intermolecular forces
Which intermolecular forces are stronger: grease to water or water to water Water to water
Whats a batch process? A process that at the end, a batch of product is made and the reaction stops
What is continuous process? It is a process plant which works at Full capacity making ongoing production
Write down one advantage and one disadvantage of using continuous process Effective because the plant works at full capacity all the time. Disadvantage- reaction vessels and pipes only designed to work well at one level of output
What are the 4 reasons why medicines are so expensive? -Strict safety laws - research and development ( can take many years to develop) - raw materials (may be rare and costly) - labour intensive ( cost of workers, they are made by batch process so less automation is used. )
How long can it take to research, develop, test and patent a new drug? Many years
What is the use, structure and properties of diamond? Use- cutting tools, it is very hard. Jewellery, it is lustrous Structure - tetrahedral Properties- doesnt conduct electricity because it has no free electrons, high melting points because of the many strong covalent bonds
What is the use, structure and properties of graphite? Use- pencil leads, slippery. Lubricants, slippery Structure - Hexagonal Properties- conducts electricity because of delocalised ions, slippery because layers of carbon atoms are weakly held together and can slide over each other.
What is the use, structure and properties of buck minster fullerene? Use- industrial catalyst, nanotubes ( semiconductors in electrical circuits or reinforce graphite in tennis rackets) Structure- sphere Properties- nanotubes have large surface area so can be used as cabs to trap other molecules
Different forms of the same element are called.... Allotropes
Explain why graphite can conduct electricity but diamond can't Graphite has delocalised electrons that can move about the structure
The shape of the individual particles - balls or tubes, sieves or cages - is their......a) giant structure b) covalent bond c) nano structure c) nano structure
What are the three main stages in water purification? Sedimentation Filtration Chlorination
Explain why each stage is used in the purification process? Sedimentation - (of particles) so the larger bits drop to the bottom Filtration- ( of very fine particles) sand is used to filter out the finer particles that do not sediment out Chlorination- to kill the microbes
Explain why distillation uses large amounts of energy The water needs to be heated to boiling point then cooled down.
Why does producing tap water increase the climate change? It takes energy to to pump and purify it.
Water is a .... a) renewable source b) non-renewable source a) renewable
What type of reaction takes place between barium chloride and sulphates? Precipitation
In a precipitation reaction, how many solutions react to form a solid that doesnt dissolve? Two
Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction between silver nitrate solution and magnesium chloride, MgBr2. 2AgNO3(aq) + MgBr2(aq) ---> 2AgBr(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq)
Created by: Lowri