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BeaverLocal 21

Vibrations in Earth caused by sudden movements of rock are called: Earthquakes
Using the difference in the time recorded for P waves and S waves to arrive at three different seismograph stations, seismologists can find an earthquake's _________________ epicenter
Magnitude expresses an earthquake's release of: energy
High pressure and high temperature can cause igneous rocks to change and become ____________ metamorphic
Almost all forms of chemical weathering take place in the presence of _____________ water
___________ rock is formed from magma igneous
Underground caves in limestone can be formed by a reaction that includes ______________ carbonic acid
List 3 geologic features that may form where tectonic plates meet rifts, mountains, volcanoes
List 3 types of volcanoes shield, composite, cinder cone
A volcano made of layers of lava shield volcanoe
A volcano made of alternating layers of cinders and lava composite volcano
A volcano made of layers of cinder cinder cone
List the 3 main types of rocks igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary
List four agents of erosion running water and waves, wind, gravity, ice
The top-most layer of the Earth in which we live crust
The layer of rock that lays beneath the crust and is denser than the crust mantle
What percentage of the Earth does the mantle make up? 80%
The composite of the mantle is thought to be mostly ________________ solid
The outer portion of the mantle is called the ____________________ Lithosphere
T or F: The lithosphere is rigid T
The inner portion of the mantle is called the _____________________ aesthenosphere
T or F: The aesthenosphere is plastic, soft and easily deformed like a piece of gum T
The center of Earth is the ______________ Core
The core is composed mainly of _________ and nickel iron
Who hypothesized that all of the continents might have been part of one landmass in the past before they drifted apart Wegener
The supercontinent that Wegener spoke of is known as _________________ Pangaea
The theory that Earth's surface is made up of large moving plates continental drift
the solid, outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle lithosphere
the theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape plate tectonics
The plates of the lithosphere "__________" on top of the aesthenosphere "float"
the process by which on lithospheric plate moves beneath another as a result of tectonic forces subduction
What occurs when two plates move apart and create a gap between them? divergent boundary
Mountain ranges at divergent boundaries in oceanic crust are known as ________________ mid-oceanic ridges
Along the center of a mid-ocean ridge is a _________ __________, a narrow valley that forms where plates separate. rift valley
T or F: New lithosphere is formed at divergent boundaries. T
T or F: Older lithosphere is destroyed at convergent boundaries. T
The process where the lithosphere of the oceanic plate, which is denser than the lithosphere of the continental plate, sinks into the mantle and drags the oceanic crust along with it is known as: subduction
What 3 things are formed at subduction zones? ocean trenches, mountains, and volcanoes
What is the name of the deepest trench located off the coast of Asia in the Pacific Ocean? Mariana Trench
What forms where two oceanic plates meet? Islands
What is a chain of volcanic islands formed when magma rises to the surface after a trench is formed? island arc
What mountain was formed by the collision of the Indian continental plate and the Eurasian continental plate? Himalayas
A break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another fault
Name one cause of earthquakes. Plate movement at transform fault boundaries
When rock moves horizontally at faults along plate boundaries, the boundary is called a ____________ ___________ __________ transform fault boundary
The location wihin Earth along a fault at which the first MOTION of an earthquake occurs focus
the point of Earth's SURFACE directly above an earthquake's starting point, or focus epicenter
List the 3 types of shock waves earthquakes releases. longitudinal waves/ P waves; Transverse waves/S waves; and seismic waves/ surface wave
Which type of shock wave originates at the earthquake's focus and are move quickly? longitudinal/P wave
Which type of shock wave moves across the Earth's surface? seismic waves/ surface waves
the sudy of earthquakes including their origin, propagation, energy, and prediction Seismology
A scale that expresses the magnitude of an earthquake Richter Scale
An opening at the surface of Earth through which volcanic material passes vent
What type of volcanoes have explosive eruptions? shield
What type of volcanoes have trapped gas? Composite
What type of volcanoes are the most abundant and are active for a short period of time and then become dormant? cinder cone
________________ volcanoes occur at divergent plate boundaries. Underwater
Most volcanoes occur at _______________ plate boundaries convergent
All rocks are composed of _______________ minerals
a natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties mineral
Type of plate that moves apart Divergent
Type of plate that comes together Convergent
Type of plate that slips past one another and DOES NOT form a new plate Slip Fault
type of rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies igneous rock
the natural process by which atmosphereic and enviornmental agents, such as wind, rain, and temperature changes, disintegrate and decompose rocks weathering
A rock that forms from other rocks as a result of intense heat, pressure, or chemical processes metamorphic rock
What principle does this support: If there has been no disturbance in the position of the rock layers, the oldest will be on the bottom, and the youngest will be on the top Principle of superposition
A rock that forms from compressed or cemented layers of sediment sedimentary rock
precipitation, such as rain, sleet, or snow, that contains a high concentration of acids, often because of pollution of the atmosphere acid precipitation
a process in which the materials of the Earth's surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transportated from one place to another by a nartural agent, such as wind, water, ice, or gravity erosion
the process in which material is laid down deposition
Created by: kjones0722