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AP II

Chap 8 The Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
______ is the name of the nervous system division that includes the nerves that extend to the outlying parts of the body. peripheral nervous system
______ is the name of the nervous system division that includes the brain and spinal cord. central nervous system
A group of peripheral axons bundled together in an epineurium is called a ___________. nerves
The two types of cells found in the nervous system are ________ and _______. neurons ; glia
The knee jerk is of a type of neural pathway called a ________. reflex arc
__________ is a self-propagating wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron's plasma membrane. nerve impulse
The exterior of a resting neuron has a slight _________ charge, whereas the interior has a slight _______ charge. positive ; negative
During a nerve impulse, ______ is the ion that rushes into the neuron. sodium
The ______ is the place where impulses are passed from one neuron to another. synapse
Acetylcholine and dopamine are examples of ______________, which are chemicals used by neurons to communicate. neurotransmitters
______, _______, and ______ are the three membranes that make up the meninges. dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater
There are ____ pairs of cranial nerves and ___ pairs of nerves that come from the spinal cord. 12, 31
_____ are skin surface areas supplied by a single spinal nerve. dermatomes
_____ is the part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates effectors during nonstress conditions. parasympathetic nervous system
_____ is the part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the "fight or flight" response. sympathetic nervous system
The preganglionic axons of the sympathetic nervous system release the neurotransmitter ___. The postganglionic axons release ____. acetycholine ; norepinephrine
The autonomic nervous system consist of neurons that conduct impulses from the btain or spinal cord to ____ tissue,___ tissue, and _____ tissue. cardiac muscle; smooth muscle; glandular epithelial
a highly branched part of the neuron that carries impulses toward the cell body dendrite
a single projection that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body axon
a whie fatty substance that surronds and insulates the axon myelin
cells that make myelin for axons outside the CNS schwann cells
glia cells that help form the blood-brain barrier astrocytes
cells that act as microbe-eating scavengers in the CNS microglia
part of the brainstem that contains cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers medulla oblongata
part of the brainstem that is a conduction pathway btwn areas of the brain and body; influences respiration pons
part of the brainstem that contains relays for visual and auditory impulses midbrain
regulates body temp, water balance, sleep-wake cycles, appetite, and sexual arousal hypothalamus
sensory relay station from various body areas to the cerebral coretx; also involved with emotions and alerting and arousal mechanisms thalamus
regulates muscle coordination, maintenance of equilibrium, and posture cerebellum
sensory perception, willed movements, consciousness and memory are mediated here / largest part of the human brain cerebrum
carries messages to and from the brain to the rest of the body; also mediates reflexes spinal cord
What are the four lobes of the cerebrum? frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Which lobe of the cerebrum controls vision? occipital
Which lobe of the cerebrum controls emotions, personality, morality and intellect? frontal
Which lobe of the cerebrum controls sensory area for pain, touch, heat cold? parietal
Which lobe of the cerebrum controls hearing and smelling? temporal
What are the 4 major parts of the brain? brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum
What are the 3 parts of the brainstem? medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
Which part of the brainstem controls the vital signs? medulla oblongata
Which part of the brainstem controls the breathing rhythm? pons
Which part of the brain stem controls the reflexes? midbrain
Which part of the diencephalon consists mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, and gray matter? hypothalamus
What are the two main parts of the diencephalon? hypothalamus and thalamus
Which part of the brain controls all body functions having to do with skeletal muscles? cerebellum
-the place where the impulses are transmitted from one neuron presynaptic neuron
-the place where the impulse has been transmitted from one neuron to the next neuron postsynaptic
What is an example of a two-neuron reflex a rc? knee jerk
What is an example of a three-neuron reflex arc? withdraw from touching hot stove
-the point of connection btwn two nerves synapse
- tissue composed of primarily of myelinated axons white matter
-tissue composed primarily of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers grey matter
-surrounds indv fibers within a nerve endoneurium
-surrounds a group of nerve fibers perineurium
-surrounds the entire nerve epineurium
-supports cells, bringing the cells of nervous tissue together structurally and functionally glia
-emerge from the skin or sense organs, conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain sensory (afferent) neurons
-conduct impulses away from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands motor (efferent) neurons
-conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons interneurons (associative neurons)
-conduct impulses away from the cell body of neuron axon
-conduct impulses to the cell body of neuron dendrites
Created by: erikasmith28