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Development 2

Developemental psychology

Functional Approach 1)Activity without obvious goals 2)No immediate benefits 3)Unclear purpose, beginning and end Diff to define but all know what it is
Structural Approach Behaviours associated with play, centrality of play signals and meaning of behave playfully
Piaget Overlapping stages in the development of play - innate and universal
Practice Play (SMS) Play limited and consists of banging things. Depends on aims and level of cognitive development or exploration
Symbolic/Pretend Play (POS) Cognitive skills, internal rep and SA --> use imagination = going beyond enviro and project onto things in enviro
Play with rules Playground games e.g. tig
Symbolic Play Emerges 12-15m --> Involves meta-rep and links to other social cog skills e.g. lang
Early Symbolic Play Involves self directed actions. Piaget: play = isolated activity. Over time: 1) Decentration - others incorporated (shift from solitary) 2) Decontextualisation - use less realistic substitute objects
Haight & Miller (SP) Most play social = joint longer than solitary
Howes and Matherson (SP) Gradual Shift from adult led to child led symbolic play (scaffold)
Evidence not conclusive SP = claimed positive effect on ToM development
Sylva (SP) High yield (building, drawing, etc) more cognitive benefits than mid (SP with toys and clay) - low (rough and tumble) yield
SP predicts language development complexity in play associated with emergence of 1st word and multiword development
Wing & Gould (SP) Triad of symptoms associated with autism: communication, imagination, socialisation
Autistic Research Little if any spontaneous play
Jarrold (Challenged autistic research) Depends on what the child is interested in. Autistic engage in structured SP and understand when activity SP. Lack of flexible SP result of: 1) Probs associated with multiple reading s of situation 2) Preference for literal interpretation (SP = 2 levels)
Haight et al (Cross cultural - similarities) Similarities: 1) Object centered play universal and act as transition from real to non-lit rep 2) SP is social 3)Parent-Child interaction = developmental characteristics (caregivers bring into play and back off)
Haight et al (Cross cultural - differences) Differences: 1) Degree of parent initiated play (more in TC) 2) Centrality of object centered play (more in IA)
Prior 18m Basic sense of self as distinct from the environment
2-4m Aware can control objects and own bodily movements
8m Distress when caregiver moves away
1yr social checking: look at expression and understand need attention to direct attention
Person permanence Understand certain people permanent and look if disappear. Internal rep of social being. Achieved in SMS along with object permanence
Lewis & Brooks-Gunn (MSR) 9-12m = not touch nose (didn't know it was them/methodology/misinterpretation of behavior). 15-18m = minority touch nose (18M = aware reflection in mirror self - SA). 21-24m = 70-73% touch nose.
Povinelli (delayed recognition test) SA not as robust as adults. 36m = 13% (MSR = 85%), 48m = 80%. When asked who in picture - Youngest = proper name, Older = personal pronoun. Gradual development of self representation and 3yrs = understand temporal continuity of self
Nielson (leg MSR) 18m = don't show SA/touch sticker on leg but some can in MSR. 24 = 29% reach for sticker -> matching between the 2 representations (some mental rep of selves)
Self recognition Beginning of child's ability to meta-represent. Understanding one thing can represent another - moving beyond senses to mental representation stored in mind (underlies many aspects of cognitive development)
Self recognition (2) Related to other developmental milestones e.g. language
Lewis & Brooks-Gunn: categorization along 3 social domains Family, Gender, Familiarity (9-12m = some awareness of self and others)
Until 2yrs (gender differences minimal) Females = more responsive to people, stay closer to adults, talk earlier. Males = more stress in situations beyond control (Marginal difference but difficult to test)
Gender identity emerge gradually 3yrs = aware of own and others gender, 4yrs = gender typically stable, 2y6m = beliefs about sex appropriate behavior
Competence models (Hala & Chandler) FBT: underestimate children's ability due to task demands. Hala & Chandler - strategic deceit = conspire to move contents performance elevated (3yrs = pass). Test questions complex -> modify FBT = significant elevation in peformance.
Problems with competence model 1) Improvements not
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