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Basal Ganglia & Conn

Basal Ganglia & their connections

What are the basal ganglia? Masses of gray matter within each cerebral hemisphere
Corpus Striatum in general Divided by internal capsule into Caudate nucleus & Lentiform nucleus & globus pallidus + putamen)
Basal ganglia... Corpus Striatum; Amygdaloid nucleis; Claustrum
Caudate Nucleus Head = lateral wall of anterior horn of lateral ventricle (butterfly wing); Head continuous inferiorly with putamen; Cell bridges = striated; Body; Tail ends anterior to amygdala
Lentiform Nucleus relationship to internal capsule Lateral to internal capsule; IC separates lentiform from thalamus
Lentiform Nucleus relationship to external capsule Medial; EC separates it from thin sheet of gray matter (claustrum)
Lentiform relationship to putamen Putamen is more lateral
What system is the amygdala part of? Limbic System
Amygdala function Body's response to environmental changes (tied to reticular formation)
Substantia Nigra & Sub-Thalamic Nuclei Closely related functionally, situated near BG (NOT part of BG)
Neurons of the Substantia Nigra are? Dopaminergic & Inhibitory; have many connections to corpus striatum
Neurons of the Sub-Thalamic nuclei are? Glutaminergic & excitatory; have connections to GP & SN
What is the function of the claustrum? Unknown
What is the substantia nigra? Pigmented mass of neurons b/t cerebral peduncle & midbrain tegmentum; 2 main areas: Dorsal/Ventral
Dorsal Substantia nigra is aka, & contains what? Pars Compacts; contains dopamine
Ventral Substantia Nigra is aka, & contains what? Parts Reticulata; contains iron pigments
SN serves as a "fence" & fences off what? Corticospinal tract & tegmentum of upper pons/lower midbrain
If afferent fibers arrive from the caudate nucleus & putamen to SN-Pars Compacta where is info sent? Right back
If afferent fibers arrive from caudate nucleus & putamen to SN-Pars Reticulata, where is info sent? Processed & sent outside BG to control head/eye movements
Afferent fibers arrive mostly from? Cerebral cortex; also from globus pallidus & sub-thalamic nucleus
What neurons are lost in pts with Huntington's disease? Pigmented & non-pigmented
Parkinson's patients only lose what? Dopamine (pigmented)
What are the main sites receiving input to the BG? CN & Putamen
what is the major site from which output leaves BG? Globus Pallidus
Do the BG nuclei receive input form SC? No direct input from SC; little direct input to SC
Afferent Connections of Corpus Striatum Corticostriate (ipsilateral; input from sensory-motor cortex); Thalamostriate (intralaminar nuclei of thalamus to CN/putamen); Nigrostriate (from SN to CN & putamen); Brainstem striatal fibers
Efferent connections of corpus striatum Striatopallidal & Striatonigral
Afferent connections of GP Striatopallidal
Efferent connections of GP Pallidofugal fibers
Corpus striatum receives afferent info from where? cerebral cortex (esp pre-motor/supp motor area/primary sensory cortex); Thalamus; Sub-thalamus; Brainstem (including SN)
Outflow of BG is channeled through what & influences what? GP; influences activities of motor area of cerebrum or motor centers of brainstem
BG control what by influencing cerebral cortex? Muscle mvmts
BG has no direct control through? Descending paths to brainstem & SC
Destruction of primary motor cortex prevents what? Performance of fine discrete mvmts of hands/feet contralaterally (pt can still perform gross mvmts contralaterally)
The thalamus is inherently active & all info from thalamus back to cortex is Positive
Can the cerebral cortex receive constant positive feedback from the thalamus? No, it has to be modulated/relatively inhibited by various neurotransmitters such as GABA
Indirect motor loop More negative signals via GABA than direct motor loop; Less excitatory info to thalamus (slow process due to extra step)
Parallel BG paths for mvmt, eye mvmt, congition, emotion (all have direct/indirect components) Motor; Oculomotor; Pre-frontal; Limbic
Oculomotor Path/Loop Cortical Sources Frontal eye fields; Supplementary eye fields; Dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex; Posterior parietal cortex
Inputs of oculomotor path directed where? Mostly to the body of the caudate nucleus, which projects to GP-I & SN-PR
Oculomotor Path- Thalamic targets are? Dorsomedial & VA
Oculomotor Path- Dorsomedial thalamus Determines behavioral important of inputs; Inhibits motor response when task requires delaying response; Influences affective behavior, decision making, judgment, memory
What completes the oculomotor loops? Thalamocortical projections to frontal eye field & supplementary eye fields
Which loop is important in cognitive processes involving frontal lobes? Pre-Frontal Loop
What are cortical sources of input in pre-frontal loop? Posterior parietal cortex & pre-motor cortex
Inputs of pre-frontal loop directed mostly where? Head of caudate nucleus, which projects to GP-I & SN-PR
Thalamocortical parts of pre-frontal loop projects to what? Pre-frontal cortex, esp pre-frontal heteromodal assn cortex
Pre-frontal loop- pre-frontal cortex does what? Responds to behavioral importance of inputs; Intergrates emotional events with complex sensory stim; Helps with emotional processing, planning, & decision making
Limbic Loop function Regulation of emotions & motivational drives
Cortical sources of input to limbic loop are? Temporal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala
Inputs f limbic loop mostly directed where? Nucleus accumbens, ventrla caudate, ventral putamen
Limbic Loop- thalamocortical projections to where? Anterior cingulated, orbital frontal cortex (part of limbic system
Created by: 1190550002
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