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psych final part 1

Child Psych Final

QuestionAnswer
Selman's role taking stage theory -ability to adopt another's perspective -preschooler's cant take the perspective of others and have limited social cognition
Selman's 1st stage: 6-8 yrs Children come to appreciate that another person can have a different perspective from their own, but they attribute this to the other person’s not having the same information they do
Selman's 2nd stage: 8-10 yrs Children become able to think about the other person’s point of view
Selman's 3rd stage:10-12 yrs Children can systematically compare their own and the other’s points of view
Selman's 4th stage: 12+ yrs Adolescents can compare another person’s perspective to that of a generalized other
Information- processing Theory of Social Problem Solving (Ken Dodge) -emphasizes the crucial role of cognitive processes in social behavior -use of aggression as a problem solving strategy -highly aggressive children seem to process social info differently
highly aggressive children have a hostile attributional bias -expect that others are hostile or have hostile motives towards them -become a self-fullfilling prophecy -choose aggressive responses -may be linked to peer rejection and/or parental abuse
structural dynamics of events that will or will not provoke aggressive behavior 1. encoding of cues 2. interpret the cues 3. goal clarification 4. response search 5. response evaluation 6. enactment
encoding of cues search for (attend to) and register environmental cues of the event
interpret the cues infer other's motives
goal clarification formulate a goal in the situation -to retaliate or not
response search generate possible response -what to do?
response evaluation likely response consequences -which is best approach? (cost-benefit analysis)
enactment act on the chosen response -behave aggressively or not
Carol Dweck's Theory of Self- Attributions and Achievement Motivation -emphasizes self attributions in academic achievement -2 key socio-emotional orientations >children with entity/helpless orientation >children with incremental/mastery orientation
Entity/helpless orientation Attribute success and failure to enduring aspects of the self and tend to give up in the face of failure -tend to base their sense of self-worth on the degree of approval they receive from others -avoid situations where they may fail
Incremental/mastery orientation attribute success and failure to the amount of effort expended -persist in the face of failure
Created by: 1115730065