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PSY 101 Final

Professor Lucas' Cumulative Final - David Myers Psychology 9th Edition

View that psych 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Behaviorism
Type of psych that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth. Humanistic Psychology
Interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition. Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience includes these 4 things: P, T, M, & L. Perception, thinking, memory, language.
Science of mental processes and behavior. Psychology
Longstanding controversy over the contributions that _______ and experience make to the development of psychological traits and ________. Nature Nurture Issue: genes;behaviors
Differing complementary views for analyzing any given phenomenon. Levels of Analysis
What are the 3 levels of analysis? Biological, psychological, social-cultural.
Integrated perspective incorporating biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. Biopsychosocial Approach
Pure science that aims to increase scientific knowledge base. Basic Research
Scientific study aiming to solve practical problems. Applied Research
_____ psychology studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders. Clinical Psychology
Branch of medicine dealing w/ psychological disorders, practiced by physicians who can provide medical treatment and psychological therapy. Psychiatry
Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen. "I knew it all along" phenomenon. Hindsight Bias
Thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions. (Examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, assess conclusions) Critical Thinking
Explanation using integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. Theory
Testable prediction, often implied by a theory. Hypothesis
Statement of procedures used to define research variables. Operational Definition
The fact that human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures is an example of?: Operational Definition
Repeating a research study w/ different participants in different situations to see if the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Replication
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. Population
Sample fairly representing a population b/c each member has an equal chance of inclusion. Random Sample
Observing behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate/control the situation. Naturalistic Observation
Measure of the extent two factors vary together, and thus how well each factor predicts the other. Correlation
Perception of a relationship where none exists. Illusory Coefficient
Research method where an investigator manipulates factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. Experiment
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; caused by the administration of an inert substance, where recipient assumes is an active agent. Placebo Effect
Group exposed to treatment in an experiment. Experimental Group
Group not exposed to treatment. Control group
Experimental factor manipulated, whose effects is being studied. Independent Variable
Outcome factor; variable that changes in response to manipulations. Dependent Variable
Most frequently occurring score in a distribution. Mode
Computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. Standard Deviation
Bell-shaped curve, where most scores fall near the average and fewer toward the extremities. Normal Curve
Enduring behaviors/ideas/attitudes/traditions shared by a large group of people generation to generation. Culture
Branch of psych concerned w/ links between biology & behavior. Biological Psych
Nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system. Neuron
_____ ______ carry incoming info from sensory receptors to brain & spinal cord. Sensory Neurons
____ _____ carry outgoing info from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands. Motor Neurons
______ are within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs. Interneurons
branching extensions of neurons that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. Dendrite
Extension of neuron ending in branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons/muscles/glands. Axon
Layer of fatty tissue around many neurons, enabling vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses, as impulse goes from node to node. Myelin Sheath
Neural impulse; brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. Action Potential
Level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse. Threshold
Between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite/cell body receiving neuron. Synapse
Chemical messengers that travel synaptic gap between neurons. Determine whether a neuron will generate a neural impulse. Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron. Re-uptake
Central Nervous System is made up of: brain and spinal cord.
Sensory and motor neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body. Peripheral Nervous System
Bundled axons connecting CNS w/ muscles/glands/sense organs. Nerves
Division of peripheral nervous system controlling body's skeletal muscles. Somatic Nervous System
Division of peripheral nervous system controlling glands & muscles of internal organs. Sympathetic division; arouses, Parasympathetic division; calms. Autonomic Nervous System
Arouses Sympathetic Nervous System
Calms Parasympathetic Nervous System
Body's chemical comm system; set of glands secrete hormones into bloodstream. Endocrine System
Pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys - help arouse body in times of stress. Adrenal Glands
Regulates growth & controls endocrine glands. Influenced by hypothalamus. Most influential gland in endocrine system. Pituitary Gland
Oldest part/central core of brain, responsible for automatic survival functions. Brainstem
Controls heartbeat + breathing; at base of brainstem. Medulla
Nerve network in brainstem - controls arousal. Reticular formation
On top of brainstem - directs messages of sensory receiving areas in cortext & transmits replies to cerebellum & medulla. Thalamus
"Little brain" at rear of brainstem - processes sensory input + coordinating movement output/balance. Cerebellum
Neural system between cerebral hemispheres - emotions and drives. Limbic System
Linked to emotion. Amygdala
Below thalamus - directs maintenance activities (eating/drinking/temperature), linked to emotion + reward. Hypothalamus
Interconnected neural cells covering cerebral hemis; body's ultimate control/info processing center. Cerebral Cortex
Involved with speaking, muscle movement, making plans/judgements - just behind forehead. Frontal Lobes
Receives sensory input for touch + body position - top of the head towards rear. Parietal Lobes
Receive info from visual fields - back of the head. Occipital Lobes
Includes auditory areas - above ears. Temporal Lobes
Controls voluntary movements - rear of frontal lobes. Motor Cortex
Registers and processes body touch and movement sensations - at front of parietal lobes. Sensory Cortex
Involved in higher mental functions (learning/remembering/speaking/thinking), not primary motor sensory functions. Association Areas
Band of neural fibers connecting 2 brain hemis - carries messages between them. Corpus Callosum
Awareness of ourselves and our environment. Consciousness
Interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition. Cognitive Neuroscience
Failure to see visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere. Inattentional Blindness
Study of relative power + limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. Behavior Genetics
All nongenetic influences. Environment
Made of DNA and containing genes. Chromosomes
Biochemical units of heredity making up chromosomes. Genes
Instructions for making an organism - including all genetic material in that organism's chromosomes. Genome
Study of evolution of behavior and the mind. Evolutionary Psychology.
Prescribe proper behavior - understood rule for accepted/expected behavior. Norm
giving priorities to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes, not group identifications. Individualism
Priority to goals of one's group. Collectivism
Promotes growth of male sex organs. Testosterone
Expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position should behave. Role
Acquisition of a traditional masculine/feminine role. Gender Typing
We learn social behavior by observing + imitating and by being rewarded/punished. Social Learning Theory
Fertilized egg (_____), develops into an _____. Zygote;embryo
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. Habituation
Mental activities associated with thinking/knowing/remembering/communicating. Cognition
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas. Assimilation
Adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new info. Accommodation
Stage when infants know the world in terms of their sensory impressions/motor activities. (birth-2 years) Sensorimotor Stage
Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. Object Permanence
Stage when child learns to use language but doesn't comprehend operations of concrete logic. (2-6yrs) Preoperational Stage
Preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view. Egocentrism
People's ideas about their own + others' mental states - about their feelings/perceptions/thoughts - and the behaviors these might predict. Theory of Mind
Stage when children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. (7-11yrs) Concrete Operational Stage
Stage when people begin thinking logically about abstract concepts. (12+yrs) Formal Operational Stage
Optimal period shortly after birth when organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. Critical Period
Sense that the world is predictable + trustworthy. (Erikson) Basic Trust
Non-reproductive sexual characteristics (female breasts/hips, male voice) Secondary Sex Characteristics
One's sense of self. Identity
Research where same people are restudied/tested over a long period of time Longitudinal Study
One's accumulated knowledge + verb skills, increases w/ age. Crystallized Intelligence
Ability to reason speedily + abstractly; decreases w/ age. Fluid Intelligence
Process of organizing + interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaningful objs/events. Perception
Analysis beginning w/ sensory receptor and works up to brain's integration of sensory info. Bottom-Up Processing
Info processing guided by higher level mental processes. Top-Down Processing
Often unconscious activation of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perceptions/memory/response. Priming
Principle that to be perceived different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (Difference Threshold). Weber's LAw
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Sensory Adaptation
Light enters through this adjustable opening in the eye. Pupil
Controls the size of the pupil opening. Iris
Changes shape to focus images on the retina. Lens
Light-sensitive inner eye surface (receptor rods + cones + neuron layers that begin processing visual info). Retina
Retinal receptors detecting black/grey/white, necessary for peripheral + twilight vision. Rods
Retinal receptors, center of retina, function in well-lit-conditions, detect fine detail + give rise to color sensations. Cones
Nerve carrying neural impulses from eye to brain. Optic Nerve
Where optic nerve leaves eye, ____ ____ forms. = no receptor cells there. Blind Spot
Central focal point in retina, eye's cones cluster around. Fovea
Theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yel-blue, white-black) enable color vision. Opponent-Process Theory
Tube in inner ear where sound waves trigger nerve impulses. Cochlea
Hearing theory that links pitch we here with the place where cochlea's membrane is stimulated. Place Theory
Hearing theory where rate of impulses traveling up auditory nerve matches frequency of tone, enables sense of pitch. Frequency Theory
Sense of body movement + position (balance) Vestibular Sense
illusion of movement created when 2+ adjacent lights blink on/off quickly. Phi Phenomenon
Branch of psych exploring how people interact with machines. Human Factor Psych
Relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience. Learning
Learning type when one learns to link 2+ stimuli and anticipate events. Classical Conditioning
Learning certain events occur together. Associative Learning
Naturally occurring response to unconditioned stimulus (US). Unconditioned Response (UR):Salivating when food is in mouth.
Stimulus naturally + automatically triggering a response. Unconditioned Stimulus
Learned response to previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS). Conditioned Response (CR)
Originally irrelevant stimulus, after association w/ an (US) triggers (CR). Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
In operant conditioning, strengthening of a reinforced response. Also Initial stage in classical conditioning. Acquisition
Tendency for a conditioned response to be triggered by stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus. Generalization
Learning type in which behavior = strengthened if followed with a reinforcer/diminished if followed by punisher. Operant Conditioning
Behavior operating on environment, producing consequences. Operant Behavior
Thorndike's principle for behaviors followed by favorable consequences to become more likely, & vice-verse. Law of Effect
Innately reinforcing stimuli, exp. one that satisfies a biological need. Primary Reinforcer
Reinforces response after a specified number of responses. Fixed-Ratio Schedule
Reinforces response after unpredictable number of responses. Variable-Ratio Schedule
Reinforces response after specified amount of time. Fixed-Interval Schedule
Reinforces response at unpredictable time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule
Learning that occurs but not apparent until there's an incentive for it to be demonstrated. Latent Learning
Desire to perform behavior effectively for own sake. Intrinsic Motivation
Desire to perform behavior to receive promised rewards/avoid threatened punishment. Extrinsic Motivation
Observing + imitating specific behavior. Modeling
Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice. Spacing Effect
Memory retention independent of conscious recollection. Implicit Memory
Memory of facts/experiences that one consciously knows. Explicit Memory
Neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage. Hippocampus
1) Retrieve info prev. learned 2) Identify info previously learned 1) Recall 2) Recognition
Tendency to recall experiences consistent w/ one's current good/bad mood. Mood Congruent Memory
Disruption of PRIOR learning on recall of NEW info. Proactive Interference
Disruption of NEW learning on recall of OLD info. Retroactive Interference
A mental image/best example of a category. Prototype
Simple thinking strategy often allowing judgements that solve problems efficiently. Heuristic
Inability to see a problem from new perspective by employing different mental set. Fixation
Smallest distinctive sound unit in language. Phoneme
Smallest unit carrying meaning in language. (Exp. Prefix) Morpheme
Rule set we derive meaning from words/sentences/morphemes. Semantics
Rules enabling us to communicate w/ and understand others. Semantics
Rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences in a lang. Syntax
Impairment of language. (Damage to: Broca's area (impairing speaking) or Wenicke's area (impairing understanding) Aphasia
Controls language expression. (frontal lobe, directs muscle movements involved w/ speech) Broca's Area
Controls language reception. (Language comprehension + expression, left temporal lobe) Wernicke's Area
Mental quality of abilities to learn from experience/solve problems/use knowledge to adapt to new situations. Intelligence
extent a test measures/predicts what it's supposed to. Validity
Extent a test samples behavior the behavior of interest. Content Validity
Success a test has in predicting the behavior it's designed to predict. Predictive Validity
Predictive Validity is assessed by: computing the correlation between test scores and criterion behavior.
Response of whole organism involving physiological arousal/expressive behaviors/conscious experience. Emotion
Theory that experience of emotion = our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. James-Lange Theory
Theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers phys. responses + subjective experience of emotion. Cannon-Bard Theory
Theory that to experience emotion, must be physically aroused + cognitively label the arousal. 2-Factor Theory
Emotional releases. Catharsis
Catharsis hypothesis: Releasing aggressive E does what? Relieves aggressive urges.
Self-perceived happiness/satisfaction w/ life. Subjective Well-Being
Tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by prior experiences. Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
Perception you're worse off in comparison to those you compare yourself with. Relative Deprivation
Process we perceive & respond to stressors we appraise threatening/challenging. Stress
General Adaptation Syndrome(GAS): concept of body's adaptive response to stress in 3 phases: A, R, E Alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Alleviating stress w/ emotional/cognitive/or behavioral methods. Coping
Indv's characteristic pattern of thinking/feeling/acting. Personality
Id, Ego, or Superego operates as the conscience? Superego
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital =? Psychosexual Stages
When id's pleasure-seeking Es focus on distinct erogenous zones. Psychosexual Stages
process children incorporate parents' values into their developing superegos. Identification
Jung -> concept: shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history. Collective Unconscious
Motivation to fulfill potential. Self-actualization
Attitude of total acceptance toward another person. (Rogers) Unconditional Positive Regard
Characteristic pattern of behavior/disposition to act as assessed by self-report inventories + peer reports. Trait
views behavior as influenced by interaction between people's traits and their social context.
Created by: 1288463369
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