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Geography Terms

Chapter 4

afforestation converting previously unforested land to forest by planting trees or seeds.
aridity climate with insufficient moisture to support trees or woody plants.
Balfour Declaration 1917 British mandate that required the establishment of a Jewish national homeland.
desertification process by which arid and semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desertlike conditions.
guest worker a foreigner who is permitted to work in another country on a temporary basis.
hajj pilgrimage to Mecca required of all Muslims.
import substitution process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that were formerly bought from foreign producers.
informal economy economic activities that take place beyond official record and not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration (e.g., street selling, petty crime).
intifada the violent uprising of Palestinians against the rule of Israel in the Occupied Territories.
Islam religion that is based on submission to God's will according to the Qur'an.
Islamism anti-colonial, anti-imperialist, and overall anticore political movement.
jihad sacred struggle or striving to carry out God's will according to the tenets of Islam.
kinship shared notion of relationship among members of a group often but not necessarily based on blood, marriage, or adoption
massif mountainous block of Earth's crust bounded by faults or folds and displaced as a unit.
Muslim member of the Islamic religion.
nationalist movement organized groups of people, sharing common elements of culture, such as language, religion, or history, who wish to determine their own political affairs.
nationalization process of converting key industries from private to governmental organization and control.
oasis spot in the desert made fertile by the availability of surface water.
petrodollar revenues generated by the sale of oil.
transhumance movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms: warmer, lowland areas in the winter, and cooler, highland areas in the summer.
tribe form of social identity created by groups who share a common set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action.
world religion belief system with worldwide adherents.
Zionism movement whose chief objective has been the establishment for the Jewish people of a legally recognized home in Palestine.
Created by: thesirpucas



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