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Vertebral Column

Ch. 8

What are two indications that a radiographer should not perform a fuchs projection? 1. degenerative disease 2. fracture
What structure is projected through the dens in the fuchs method? foramen magnum
In the fuchs method, the tip of the chin and the mastoid tips should be _______. vertical
Where does the CR enter for a fuchs method? enters the neck on the midsagittal plane just distal to the tip of the chin
What two structures are used to position for the AP (open mouth). 1. mastoid 2. lower edge of upper incisors
What breathing instructions should be given to the patient when performing an open mouth projection? instruct the patient to say "AH"
When performing a lateral projection of the C-spine what is the recommended SID? 72"
When performing a lateral projection of the C-spine, where should the CR enter? perpendicular to C4
What body part rest on the grid when performing a lateral C-spine? Adjacent shoulders
The lateral C-spine is also known as the _________ method. grandy
Where is the top of the IR placed for a lateral C-spine? 1" above External Acoustic Meatus (EAM)
The respiration phase for a lateral C-spine is? suspend respiration at the end of full expiration
Where is the CR located for the C-spine in hyperflexion and hyperextension? perpendicular to C4
The zygapophyseal joints of the C-spine are demonstrated on what projection? Lateral projection (hyperflexion/hyperextension)
What is the degree of angulations when performing an AP axial of C-spine? 15-20 degrees
Where does the CR enter for an AP axial projection of C-spine? C4
How much should the head and body be rotated from the MSP when performing an AP axial oblique? 45 degrees
Which intervertebral foramina will be demonstrated closes or farthest when performing an AP axial projection? farthest
What is the tube angle when performing a AP axial oblique projection? 15-20 degrees cephalad
Which intervertebral closest or farthest will be demonstrated on a PA axial oblique? closest
Which projection requires the patient to perform an even chewing motion of the mandible during the exposure? AP ottonello method
Why does the patient "chew" during the ottonello method? to blur out the mandible and to also show all seven C-spine vertebrae
What is the technique called when performing a lateral projection of the cervicothoracic area? swimmers
Where is the CR directed to when performing a swimmers technique? C7 and T1
How much should you angle the tube and in which direction if the patient is unable to depress the shoulder when performing a swimmers projection? 3-5 degrees caudal
Should you use a filter when performing a swimmers projection? yes (extreme thicknesses between C-spine and T-spine)
Where is the superior edge of the IR located when performing a AP T-spine? 1.5 - 2" above shoulder
Where is a good landmark to palpate when centering for a lateral T-spine? inferior angle of scapula (T7)
Which breathing technique is recommended for a lateral T-spine? breathe normally or at end of expiration
What are the two types of joints in the vertebral column: zygopophyseal and intervertebral
A lordotic curve is convex ______. A kyphotic curve is concave ______. anteriorly/anteriorly
Short thick processes that project posteriorly on each side of a vertebral body are called the ______. pedicles
______ are broad and flat and directed posteriorly and medially from the pedicles. Lamina
Three functions of the spinal column: protects spinal cord, support for trunk/skull and attachment for deep muscles of back and ribs
What are the two main parts on the typical vertebrae? body and vertebral arch
Primary curves are present at _____ and include: birth; thoracic/pelvic
Secondary curves develop after _____ and include: birth; cervical/lumbar
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine is called: scoliosis
The openings in the cervical vertebrae for the transmission of the vertebral artery and vein are called the ________. transverse foramen
The lateral masses are part of which cervical vertebrae? C1
In which view of the C-spine are the intervertebral foramina best demonstrated? oblique
The _____ are short and forked and are located on the cervical spine. bifid
What are the three unique vertebrae in the C-spine? C1, C2 and C7