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Monster Match Final

Psych 405 Fintch , The Citadel, History and Systems of Psychology

Accommodation In Piaget’s theory it is the process by which the schema is modified to account for a given stimulus event or experience.
St. Thomas Aquinas Combined the writings of Aristotle with Christian philosophy which served to reintroduce reason into Christianity.
Alfred Adler Broke with Freud over infantile sexuality – he thought the need for power was more important and talked about organ inferiority and compensation
Aristotle Wrote about the importance of learning and empirical observations - Proposed the laws of similarity, contrast and contiguity - Talked about the importance of cathexis.
Assimilation Piaget’s process by which the individual takes a given stimulus, event or experience into an existing schema.
Vladimir Bechterev This Russian started the first Russian experimental psychology laboratory and developed a strictly objective study of human behavior he call reflexology.
George Berkeley This British empiricist stated that God’s perception creates external reality. He wrote about physiological optics and described depth perception cues.
Friedrich Bessell Developed the personal equation to correct for individual differences in reaction time.
Alfred Binet Developed the first intelligence test and attempted to measure directly the complex mental operations of intelligence
James Braid Renamed Mesmerism, calling it hypnosis and attempted to study it scientifically.
Keller Breland & Marian Breland Their research was a serious blow to behaviorism due to their identification of the misbehavior of animals and instinctual drift.
Paul Broca Is given credit for discovering the speech area which is named for him
James Cattell Brought Galton’s testing procedures to the United States and was the first to use the term mental test
Causal laws Laws describing causal relationships and are the goal of science.
Jean Martin Charcot This French physician used hypnosis in the treatment of hysteria and his work influenced Freud
Noam Chomsky His review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior argued that language was too complex to be explained by operant condition and greatly strengthened the cognitive position.
Collective unconscious Jung’s most unique concept which represented the deepest and most powerful components of the individual’s personality and contained the cumulative experiences of humans throughout their evolutionary past
Kenneth & Mamie Clark Conducted research on the effects of discrimination and segregation which was sited in the Brown vs. Board of Education case
August Comte He developed the philosophy of positivism which stated that science should only study that which could be directly observed.
Rene Descartes Believed that some ideas were innate and what separated humans from animals was the fact that human could think – “I think therefore I am.”
Democritus Early Greek philosopher who first talked about atoms believing that the basic unit of all matter was tiny atomic particles in motion.
Dorthea Dix Campaigned vigorously in the united states to improve the conditions for the mentally ill and was effective in having considerable legislation pass
Empiricism The philosophical belief that sensory experience is the basis of all knowledge.
Gustav Fechner He wanted to determine the relationship between the mind and the body in such a way as to satisfy the material scientists of his day. He developed psychophysics - the study of the relationship between physical and psychological events.
David Ferrier Developed an extremely accurate map of the cortex of the monkey - This map was so accurate it was used to perform surgery on humans
COL. Finch Board Certified Clinical Psychology and Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Professor of Psychology and former Dean School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Greatest teacher of the history of psychology in the world!
Marie-Jean Flourens Attempted to disprove the contentions of phrenology through the use of ablation and extirpation in studying brain functioning.
Forms For Plato these are the pure, abstract realities that are unchanging, timeless, and knowable - exist in our minds and are known through rational thought
Sigmund Freud Developed psychoanalysis. Infantile sexuality. Id, ego, superego. Wrote Psychopathology of everyday life
Gustav Fritsch & Edward Hitzig Conducted experiments on the human brain using electrical stimulation and was able to map out the motor strip
Franz Gall He believed that the shape of the sull is modified by the development of the brain and the strength of the functioning in the various areas.
Francis Galton Interested in the relationship between intelligence and heredity and attempted to study this relationship using the first scientific survey
Henry H. Goddard Translated the Binet-Simon Scale into English and use it to test immigrants.
G. Stanley Hall Great organizer, first to study adolescence and old age as developmental stages, organized the American Psychological Association and its first president
John Harlow The physician who wrote about the case of Phineas Gage and the effects of his brain damage.
David Hartley This British empiricist is considered the formal founder of associationism as a doctrine. He tried to explain the underlying physiological processes of mental process through vibrations – afterimages – and is the forefather of physiological psychology.
Maximillian Hell The Jesuit priest who told Mesmer abou his use of magnets to bring about cures
Herman von Helmholtz Conducted research on vision, hearing, and the speed of nerve conduction
Thomas Hobbes He is considered the founder of British Empiricism and wrote about the dark nature of man.
Karen Horney She placed the major focus on culture and society rather than biology. She talked about basic anxiety and feminine Psychology where she said culture makes women inferior, not biology.
Clark Hull His drive reduction theory of learning was the most comprehensive theory of learning. All reinforcement has to reduce a drive.
Indeterminism The belief that human behavior is determined but that the causes cannot be accurately measured
William James Is considered the father of American psychology and talked about the constantly changing stream of consciousness which cannot be reduced to elements.
Peirre Janet Developed many ideas that are associated with Freud and use hypnosis to discover dissociated memories
Carl Jung Early follower of Freud who broke with him over libido - He believe that libido was the life force while Freud felt it was sexual energy
Immanuel Kant This philosopher wrote about pure reason and categories of thought. He was a nativist and believed that the mind is active and innately translates sensations into ideas.
George Kelly Developed fixed-role therapy which is similar to some modern treatments as well as bing similar to some suggestions of William James
Wolfgang Kohler Conducted research on learning with monkeys and talked about insigntful learning
Emil Kraepelin A student of Wundt who was interested in mental disorders and developed an early classification system for mental disorders
Thomas Kuhn Philosopher of science who stated that science passes through several stages – preparadimatic, paradigmatic, and revolutionary stage
Jean Lamarck Early theory of evolution that suggested that acquired characteristics are passed on to the next generation
Karl Lashley This psychologists worked to develop physiological support for the behavioral position but his quipotentiality and mass action actually were more supportive of the Gestalt position of learning
John Locke His writings marked the beginning of British empiricism. Developed the notion of tabula rosa.
Kurt Lewin This psychologists extended the Gestalt psychology into the social arena and wrote about life space and leadership styles
Francois Magendie Demonstrated that the dorsal roots of the spinal cord controlled sensations while the ventral roots controlled movement -was disagreement as to whether he or Chales Bell should be given priority and the discovery eventually as call the Bell-Megendie law.
Thomas Malthus His writings about the food supply increasing arithmetically while the population increases geometrically helped Darwin shape his theory.
Abraham Maslow Made humanistic psychology a formal branch of psychology and talked about a hierarchy of needs
Materialism The philosophical belief that everything in the universe is physical
Rollo May He brought existentialism to the U.S. and talked about the Human dilemma - the fact that humans are both object and subjects of experience
Mechanism The philosophical belief that the behaviors of organisms can be explained entirely in terms of mechanical laws.
Franz A. Mesmer He believed in animal magnetism which was the forerunner of hypnosis.
James Mill Applied the doctrine of mechanism to the human mind
William McDougall This individual debated Watson about the nature of learning and the role of instincts in human behavior.
Conwy Lloyd Morgan Wrote a doctrine Morgan’ Cannon and stated ;that we should not interpret any action as the outcome of the exercise of higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale.
Johannes Muller His research led him to develop the doctrine of specific nerve energy
Hugo Munsterberg His work contributed to the development of applied psychology. He conducted research on the accurac6y of eyewitness reports, clinical psychology, and industrial psychology.
Nativism The philosophical belief that certain human attributes are inherited.
Paradigm A view point or model shared by many scientists while they explore a particular subject matter.
Ivan Pavlov This Russian physiologists did extensive research on digestion and developed classical conditioning.
Philo Jewish philosopher who thought all knowledge comes from God. He condemned sensory experience because it could not provide knowledge and interfered with direct understanding of and communication with God.
Jean Piaget His work created widespread interest in cognitive psychology. He talked about assimilation and accommodation and stages of development.
Philippe Pinel Instituted a number of reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill and was the first to maintain precise records and case histories on mental patients
Karl Popper This philosopher of science stated science begins not with an observation but with the identification of a problem.
Rationalism This philosophical position argues for an active mind that playas and active part in transforming sensory information and is able to understand abstract information not attainable from sensory information alone.
Rosalie Rayner Along with Watson, she conducted the study with Little Albert
Revolutionary stage According to Kuhn, this is the stage of scientific development during which an existing paradigm is displaced by a new one.
Carl Rogers Offered the first alternative to psychoanalysis as a treatment for psychological problems and called it client-centered psychotherapy.
Benjamin Rush Was the first American psychiatrist and attempted to bring about more humane treatment for the mentally ill
Seduction theory Freud’s original position on hysteria which suggested that the systems were associated with sexual assault
Schemata For Piaget it is the potential to act in a certain way - an element of the organism's cognitive structure
Ivan Sechenov Russian who believed that external stimulation causes all behaviors and that stimulation can cause inhibition of behavior
Martin Seligman Talked about the prepared-contraprepared continuum to explain why some responses are more easily learned than others.
B. F. Skinner Believe in the completely objective study of behavior and explored the effects of various schedules of reinforcement. Reinforcement can only be identified by its effect on behavior.
Socrates Greek philosopher who believed that logic and a rigorous approach to thinking would produce truth. He was a Nativist and believed that the truth lies hidden in every mind.
Charles Spearman His writings about intelligence greatly influenced American psychological testing because of his emphasis on the (g) factor of general intelligence.
Herbert Spencer Believed that behaviors that are learned and help the organism to survive are passed on to the next generation as instincts
Johann Spurzheim Was an early follower of Gall – introduced the term phrenology and attempt to popularize it
William Stern Introduced the term mental age and intelligence quotient into the testing movement
Lewis Terman Developed the Stanford-Binet test of intelligence and followed the development of highly intelligent children.
Edward Thorndike He conducted experimental research on learning usingcats as subjects. Developed the first modern theory of learning - Wrote about the law of effect and the law of exercise
Edward Chance Tolman This learning theorist wrote about vicarious trial and error and the development of cognitive maps during a time when the major emphasis was on objective behavior
Alfred Russell Wallace Developed a theory of evolution basically identical to Darwin’s and sent him a copy of his theory which prompted Darwin to bring his theory to the public
John B. Watson Radical behaviorist who is the founder of the school of behaviorism
Ernst Weber Conducted research on the two point threshold and the just noticeable differences
Max Wertheimer Founder of the school of Gestalt psychology who stated that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Lightner Witmer This psychologist developed the first psychological clinic and is considered the father of both school and clinical psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt This German psychologist who did extensive research on the will and is considered the father of psychology - Started the first psychological laboratory
Robert Yerkes This comparative psychologist did extensive work on group intelligence testing during WW I and developed the army alpha and beta tests of intelligence.
Zeigarnik Effect The tendency to remember uncompleted tasks longer than completed ones
Zeitgeist The spirit of the time and is used to explain why certain ideas may not be accepted when they first appear.
Richard Grobbler A Nastyman
Created by: 503041525