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Based off Study Guide

Organizational Culture A common perception held by the organization’s members, a system of shared meaning that distinguishes the organization from other organizations
Innovation and Risk Taking degree to which employees are allowed to be innovative
Attention to Detail degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail
Outcome Orientation degree of focus on outcome of organizational objectives
People Orientation degree of focus on the impact of organizational practices
Team Orientation degree to which teams are used over individual action
Aggressiveness how aggressive the people in the organization are
Stability how much an organization focuses on the status quo as opposed to growth
Dominant Culture a culture that expresses the core values of the majority of the organizations members
Core Values the primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organizations
Strong/Weak Culture cultures that are intensely held and widely shared as opposed to weak
Subcultures mini-cultures within an organization
Organizational Climate atmosphere regarding safety, customer service, diversity, performance
Institutionalization a condition that occurs when an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from it’s member. Essentially valued for not its goods and services, or even its members, but for its culture.
Socialization Process: process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture
Prearrival Stage the period of learning in the organization that occurs before a new employee joins the organization
Encounter Stage stage in the socialization process where the employee sees what the organization is really like, and a contrast is built between expectations and reality
Metamorphosis the stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work-group, or organization.
Creating and Communicating Culture culture formed from philosophy of the organization’s founders, which is translated to the employees select to lead. From there, top management and socialization pass it down. Also includes the use of rites and rituals, stories and language, and material
Rites established and often ceremonious act within organizational culture
Rituals repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the values of the organization, which goals and people are important, and which are expendable
Material Symbols what conveys to employees who is important, what is appropriate, i.e. The size of offices
Stories and Language storytelling, narratives of innovation, rule breaking, rags to riches etc
Nordstrom’s story
Nike’s story innovation, Bill Bowerman pouring rubber onto his wife’s waffle iron for a better shoe
Core Values the primary and dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization
Core Purpose the primary and dominant goal of an organization
Strong/Weak Cultures cultures that are intensely held and widely shared as opposed to the opposite
Subcultures mini-cultures within an organization
Southwest employee respect, good customer service, good treatment and people oriented
Nike competitive, crushing competition, high intensity and objective focused
Disney friendly, happy, people oriented
Nordstrom “the customer is always right”, very customer satisfaction oriented
Job Analysis systematic procedures for identifying information about a job that results in job description and specification
Job Specification general skills necessary for performance in a job, knowledge, skills, experience, abilities
Job Description description of day to day tasks and responsibilities associated with a job
Methods used for selection includes 1. References 2. Work Sample Tests/Assessment Centers 3. Physical Tests 4. Written Tests 5. Drug Tests 6. Interviews
Reliability treatment of every employee in the same manner, i.e. same interview questions and qualifications
Validity accuracy of information obtained during the selection process
Initial Selection use for preliminary “rough cuts”, i.e. background checks or application forms
Substantive Selection determining most qualified applicants, written tests, interviews, performance
Contingent make final check before making offer, i.e. drug tests, background check
Work-Sample Tests hands on simulations of part or all the work that that applicants for routine jobs must perform
Assessment Centers a set of performance simulation tests designed to evaluate a candidate’s managerial potential
Task Performance performing the duties and responsibilities that contribute to the production of a good or service, or administrative tasks
Citizenship: actions that contribute to the psychological environment of the organization, such as helping others when not required
Counterproductivity actions that actively damage the organization, like stealing, aggression, lateness, absence
Individual Task Outcomes how does the task turn out, what does the employee produce
Behavior how does the person act, are they often late, do they have good citizenship
Traits weakest criteria, but what traits the employee has may matter (confidence, dependability)
Critical Incidents a way of evaluating the behaviors that are key in making the difference between executing a job effectively and ineffectively, list of incidents of good or bad behavior
Graphic Rating Scales an evaluation method in which the evaluator rates performance factors on an incremental scale (Leikert Scales, 1 to 5)
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales(BARS) scale that combines elements from critical incident and graphic rating methods, points are individual behaviors an measured on a continuum
Forced Comparison evaluation based on explicit comparison with a group, i.e. 3rd out of 10.
Group Order Ranking ranking employees into particular classifications, such as quartiles
Individual Ranking an evaluation method that rank-orders employees from best to worst
Improving Evaluation 1. Use multiple evaluators 2. Evaluate selectively (i.e., only when you have expertise, don’t use an accountant to evaluate an engineer) 3. Train Evaluators 4. Give employees due process, i.e. exactly what is expected of them
Employee Training and Development types of training, training methods, needs assessment, training design
Basic Literacy Skills ensuring that basic math and verbal skills are meet
Technical Skills training and specialized skills, repairing engines, preparing financial statements
Interpersonal Skill effective interaction with others
Problem Solving Skills activities to sharpen, logic, reasoning, and problem-solving
Ethics Training: about 75% of employees in 1000 largest corporations receive ethics training
Formal and Informal Training planned and structured training VS learning on the job
On the Job Training ob rotation, apprenticeships, understudy programs, mentorship
Off the Job Training live lectures, internet courses, instructional videos
Organizational Analysis what does the organization hope to accomplish, and how will this employee help?
Person Analysis what kind of person do we need for this job?
Task Analysis what kind of task do we need this employee do do?
Training Design the types of formal and informal training programs put together to ensure employees are ready to do their jobs
Organization Development a collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well being
5 OD Values: 1. Respect for People 2. Trust and Support 3. Power Equalization 4. Confrontation 5. Participation
Sensitivity Training training groups that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction
Change making things different
Planned Change change activities that are intentional and goal oriented
Change Agents: persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibilities for managing change activities
Workforce cultural diversity, aging population, immigration and outsourcing
Technology faster, cheaper, more mobile technologies, social networking, deciphering of genetic cod
Economic Shocks rise and fall of global housing market, recession, collapse
Competition global competitors, e-commerce
Social Trends environmental awareness, retirement of baby boomers, more multitasking and networking
World Politics healthcare, shifts in global markets
Education and Communication communicating the logic of change
Participation getting employees involved in deciding to change
Building Support and Commitment dodging fear and anxiety with counseling, new training, or short paid leave
Positive Relationships people are more open to change instituted by managers they love and trust
Implementing Changes Fairly procedural fairness so employees don’t feel short changed
Manipulation and Cooptatation covert influence attempts
Selecting People Who Accept Change choosing employees amenable to change
Coercion change or you’ll be fired.
Overt and Immediate voicing complaints and taking action
Implicit and Deferred loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism
Individual and Organizational Resistance to Change: 1. Individual Resistance: a. Selective Information Processing b. Fear of the Unknown c. Economic factors d. Habit e. Security
Organizational Resistance a. Threat to resource allocation b. Threat to power relationships c. Threat to expertise d. Structural inertia e. Limited focus of change f. Group inertia
Lewin’s 3 Step Model and Forces for/against Change 1.Unfreezing:changing to overcome pressures of individual resistance and group conformity 2.Movement:change process that transforms organization from status quo to desired state 3.Refreezing:stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and res
Driving force forces that drive behavior away from the status quo
Restraining force: forces that drive behavior toward the status quo
Action Research a change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the data indicate
Kotter’s Eight Step Plan an eight step plan to implement change
Appreciative Inquiry (AI) an approach that seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can be built on to improve performance
Innovation a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service
Idea Champions individuals that take an innovation and actively move to promote the idea
Learning Organization a organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change
Single Loop Learning a process of correcting errors using past routines and present policies
Double Loop Learning a process of correcting errors by modifying the organization’s objectives, policies, and standard routines
Addressing Resistance to Change at Individual and Group Levels Individual and Organizational Resistance to Change: 1. Individual Resistance: a. Selective Information Processing f. Fear of the Unknown g. Economic factors h. Habit i. Security
2. Organizational Resistance: g. Threat to resource allocation h. Threat to power relationships i. Threat to expertise j. Structural inertia k. Limited focus of change l. Group inertia
Psychological Causes of stress A. Stress: when an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important
B. Challenge Stressors stressors associated with workload, pressure, and time urgency
C. Hindrance Stressors stressors that keep you from reaching your goals, e.g. red tape, confusion
D. Demands responsibilities, pressures, and obligations that individuals face in the workplace 1. Task, role, and interpersonal demands
E. Resources things within an individual’s control that can be used to resolve demands
VII- Managerial and Organizational Responses to Stress (How to help employees) A. Individual Responses to Stress 1. Better time management 2. Increasing physical exercise 3. Relaxation training 4. Using social support network
B. Organizational Responses: 1Improved personnel selection and job placement 2Training 3Use of realistic goal setting 4Redesigning of jobs to increase control and reduce role ambiguity 5Increased employee involvement 6Offering employee sabbaticals 7Establishment of corporate we
VIII- Employee Wellness Programs organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition
I- Balancing Work and Life: 5 Step Model AIdentify Priorities: think strategically about your personal and career life, and what success means to you BSet Goals: SMART goals, be realistic, try to be flexible, cost-benefit analysis CAssess the Present: SWOT analysis, assess time use DMake and
A. Identify Priorities think strategically about your personal and career life, and what success means to you
Set Goals SMART goals, be realistic, try to be flexible, cost-benefit analysis
C. Assess the Present SWOT analysis, assess time use
D. Make and Take Action Plans : personalize success, set boundaries, manage time, seek personal outsourcing, seek personal and work life mentors
E. Evaluate the Results Ask someone to help create accountability, reinforce yourself for success, act as a role model
II- Quality of Life/ Quantity of Life A. Quality: how happy you are during your life, how much intrinsic value is associated with your actions B. Quantity : measurable and tangible attributes and accomplishments in life
A. Quality how happy you are during your life, how much intrinsic value is associated with your actions
B. Quantity measurable and tangible attributes and accomplishments in life
III- Personal Mentoring : asking someone to help you hold yourself accountable, act as a work life role model
IV- Personal Outsourcing : seeking help with tasks and goals from as many sources as possible, coworkers, spouses, friends. Can also include hiring helpers, like a maid
V- SWOT Analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis, used in assessment of the present
VI- Setting Boundaries avoiding work/life spillover, when work interferes with personal life or vice-versa. Know when to say no, or to refuse a task.
VII- Bundling Activities finding ways to spend time that combine aspects of multiple goals, i.e. working out… with friends
SALs what's the right organizational culture for me? what are my attitudes toward workplace diversity?
SAls (Cont.) how stressful is my life?
SAL's (Cont.) doing breakdowns of job description as a student the 5 steps for CH 19 list 10 things that describe yourself
Created by: 63704904
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