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psych ch14 vocab


personality the consistent, enduring, and unique characteristics of a person
unconscious the part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors
id the part of the unconscious personality that contains our needs, drives, instincts, and repressed material
ego the part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways
superego the part of the personality that is the source of conscience and counteracts the socially undesirable impulses of the id
defense mechanism certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances
rationalism making up acceptable excuses for behaviors that cause us to feel anxious
repression if you push disturbing thoughts and memories out of awareness without ever realizing it
denial if you refuse t accept the reality of something that makes you anxious
projection inner feelings are thrown, or projected, outside the self and assigned to others
reaction formation replacing an unacceptable feeling or urge with an opposite one
displacement when you cannot take out your anger on the source of your frustrations, so you displace it or take it out on a less powerful person
sublimation redirecting a forbidden desire into s socially acceptable desire
collective unconscious the part of the mind that contains inherited instincts, urges, and memories common to all people
archetype an inherited, idea based on the experiences of one's ancestors, which shapes one's perception of the world
inferiority complex a pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source
behaviorism belief that the proper subject matter of psychology is objectively observable behavior-and nothing else
contingencies of reinforcement the occurrence of rewards or punishments following particular behaviors
locus of control our beliefs about how much control we have over certain situations
internal locus of control believing you have control over situations
external locus of control believing that your fate is determined by forces beyond your control
observational learning a person acquires a new behavior by watching the actions of another person
self-efficacy our view of our ability to succeed
humanistic psychology a school of psychology that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of maximum potential by each unique individual
self-actualization the humanist term for realizing one's unique potential
self one's experience or image of oneself, developed through interaction with others
positive regard viewing oneself in a positive light due to positive light due to positive feedback received from interaction with others
conditions of worth the conditions a person must meet in order to regard himself or herself positively
unconditional positive regard the perception that individuals' significant others value them for what they are, which leads the individuals to grant themselves the same regard
fully functioning an individual whose person and self coincide
personal construct theory our "processes are psychologically channelized by the way in which (each of us) anticipates events"
trait a tendency to react to a situation in a way that remains stable over time
cardinal trait a characteristic or feature that is so pervasive the person is almost identified with
factor analysis a complex statistical technique used to identify the underlying reasons variables are correlated
surface trait a stable characteristic that can be used observed in certain situations
extravert an outgoing, active person who directs his or her energies and interests toward other people and things
introvert a reserved, withdrawn person who is preoccupied with his or her inner thoughts and feelings
extraversion associated with warmth, talkativeness, and being energetic
agreeableness involves being sympathetic to others, kind, and trusting
conscientiousness identifies individuals who are dutiful, dedicated to completing tasks, organized, and responsible
openness to experience describes people who are open-minded and willing to try intellectual experiences, new ideas, or creative experiences
emotional stability identifies individuals who experience things relatively easily and without getting upset
Created by: lizhopper2