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Lifespan Psychology

Test 2 “Children’s Cognitive Development” Chapter 5

What were Piaget’s two stages of Cognitive Development? 1. Preoperational (ages 2-7) 2. Concrete operations (ages 8-11)
What is the cognitive process for children that are transitioning to early childhood? (preoperational thinking) Child begins to use our descriptions of world to better understand their surroundings. -Symbolic: language, make-believe play, and Dual Representation (recognizing that something is both an object onto itself and also a symbol of something. -Illogical
Transitioning to middle childhood (concrete thinking) Logical: Develop realistic reasoning, as well as being able to cognitively process multiple dimensions, become more logically aware of their surroundings. Concrete: Tied to real world but cant think abstractly with realistic ideas.
What do children master in the transition from preoperational to concrete operational thinking? -Appearance, Reality: 4 years-focus on outward appearance. 8 years-focus on identity and how it stays the same. Conservation: Decentration (think about more than 1 variable), Reversibility, and Perspective-taking: Piaget’s "Three mountain experiment
Evaluating Piaget’s ideas about childhood. -Piaget underestimated pre-school age children -Piaget downplayed social context of cognitive development (illustrated through Three mountain experiment)
Vygotsky’s Socicultural Theory: Zone of Proximal Development The area where children are capable of doing a task with the help of someone else. Ex: Tying their shoe, at first the parent would help, but as the child got the hang of it, the parent would ease off and allow them to develop independently.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Scaffolding The help that we give children during“proximal development”. Good scaffolding consists of a parent helping their child entirely, but as time went one, the parent fades away with helping so the child can learn to get better at something on his/her own.
Created by: deweesd
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