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rad review

spine x-ray

QuestionAnswer
What SID is used on an AP open mouth projection of the atlas and axis and why? 30" SID to increase the field of view of the odontoid
What needs to be in a perpendicular line to the IR when positioning for and AP open mouth view of the odontoid? the lower edge of the upper incisors to the tip of the mastoid process
How is the CR directed for an AP axial projection of the c-spine? 15-20 degrees cephaldad at C4 or inferior to most prominent point of thyroid cartilage
What does the AP axial projection of the c-spine show? 5 lower cervical bodies and two or three upper thoracic
Where is the IR positioned for a lateral projection of the c-spine? 1" above EAM
Where is the CR directed for a lateral projection of the c-spine? at C4
What are the breathing instructions for a lateral c-spine? suspend respiration on exhalation to depress shoulders
What vertebral structures are seen on a lateral c-spine radiograph? lower 5 cervical zygopophyseal joints
Where so you center the CR and IR on Lateral flexion and extension c-spine? cr at c4 and IR 2" above eam
Where do you direct the CR for RPO and LPO projections of the c-spine? 15-20 degrees cephalic at c4
What is shown on the RPO and LPO projection of the C-spine? The foramina and pedicles farthest from the IR
Where do you direct the CR for an LAO and RAO projection for the c-spine? 15-20 degrees caudad at C-4
What structures are shown in the LAO and RAO projections for the c-spine? the foramina and pedicles closest to the IR
How do you position the patient for a Lateral projection of the cervicothoracic region using a swimmer's technique? raise arm that is closest to IR above head and depress other shoulder
Where do you center for a Lateral projection of the cervicothoracic region using a swimmer's technique? c7-T1 or 2" above jugular notch or 3-5 degrees caudad if shoulder cannot be depressed properly
To reduce kyphosis on an AP projection of the thoracic vertebrae what would you have the patient do? flex hip and knees
Where do you center the IR and CR for an AP projection of the thoracic vertebrae? superior edge of IR 1 1/2 - 2 above shoulder and the CR half way between the jugular notch and xiphoid process
Where do you center the CR on a lateral projection of the t-spine? At T-7
What would you do if the patients spine is not parallel to the table for a lateral projection of the t-spine? Angle the tube 10-15 degrees cephalic or put a wedge under the patients lumbar region
What breathing technique would you use on a lateral projection of the t-spine? normal breathing to obliterate lung detail
Where do you center the CR on a AP projection of the L-spine to only show the lumbar spine? 1 1/2" above the iliac crest
Where do you center the CR on an AP projection of the L-spine to show the lumbar spine and sacrum? at the iliac crest (L4)
Where do you center the CR for a lateral projection of the L-spine? on the midcoronal plane at the iliac crest
Where do you center the CR for a Lateral projection of the L-5 S-1 junction? 1 1/2" inferior to iliac crest and 2" posterior to ASIS angle 5-8 degrees caudad if spine is not horizontal
What is visualized on RPO and LPO Radiograph of the L-spine? the articular processes and zygopopyseal joints that are closest to the IR
Where do you center the CR on an AP oblique of the L-spine? 2" medial to the elevated ASIS and 1 1/2" above the iliac crest
On an oblique radiograph of the L-spine What does it mean when the pedicle is anterior of the vertebral body? It means the patient is not rotated enough
On an oblique radiograph of the L-spine What does it mean when the pedicle is posterior of the vertebral body? It means the patient is rotated too much
What is visualized on a radiograph of the L-spine when the patient is in an LAO or RAO postion? Zygopophyseal joints farthest from the film
Where do you center the CR for the L-spine when the patient is in an LAO or RAO postion? 1 1/2" superior to the iliac crest and 2" lateral to the spinous process
Where do you center the CR for an AP view of the lumbosacral junction and sacroilliac joints? 30-35 degrees cephalic 1 1/2" superior to the pubic symphysis
How many degrees do you rotate the patient to for an oblique projection of the sacroiliac joint 25-30 degrees
Where do you center for the posterior oblique projection of the sacroiliac joints? 1" medial to the elevated ASIS
Where do you center the CR for the anterior oblique projection of the sacroiliac joint 1" medial to the ASIS closest to the IR
Where do you center the CR for an AP projection of the Sacrum? 15 degrees cephalic 2" superior to the pubic symphysis
Where do you center the CR for an AP projection of the coccyx? 10 degrees caudad entering 2" superior to the pubic symphysis
Where do you center for lateral projection of the sacrum an coccyx? at the level of the ASIS and 3 1/2 " posterior from it
Where do you center for just the lateral coccyx? 2" inferior and 3 1/2" posterior to the ASIS
What is the AP projection of the L-spine with Right or Left bending used for? to show structural changes of patients with early scoliosis, herniation, or spinal fusion
How do you postion a patient for an AP projection of the L-spine with Right or Left bending used for? place them supine, cross left leg on top for right bending and bring heals and shoulders lateraly, and vice versa
Created by: kshum