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Geography STAAR 2

Oskooi - World Geography - Category 2

Lithosphere Earth’s crust and solid upper mantle, broken into tectonic plates
Plate tectonic theory Idea that the lithosphere is made up of moving tectonic plates
Ring of Fire Area around the Pacific Ocean known for frequent earthquakes and volcanoes
Tsunami Large displaced walls of water created by earthquakes under or near oceans
Atmosphere The air, layers of gases surrounding Earth
Climate Average weather conditions of a place over a long period of time
Latitude Coordinate measuring north and south of the equator (0 degrees); primary element of climate and a strong influence on settlement
Elevation Measurement above or below sea level
Monsoons seasonal prevailing wind in the region of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia (summer wet/winter dry)
Hydrosphere Earth’s water
Water cycle (hydrologic cycle) Movement of water between evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and transpiration
Precipitation Water that moves from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface (rain, snow, hail, etc. . .)
Glacier Large sheets of slow moving ice
Biosphere All life forms on Earth
Vegetation Type of plants an area supports
Biomes Different regions which support various kinds of life (i.e. forest, grassland, desert, and tundra)
Erosion Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
Weathering Wearing away of Earth’s surface caused by wind, water, ice, or chemicals
Soil-building Process where the breakdown of rocks and organic materials creates arable (farmable) land
Human Environmental Interaction (HEI) How humans adapt, change, and modify their environment
Carrying Capacity The amount of life a piece of land can support
Demographics Profile of human population at a given time, with data broken out into categories
Per capita Per person, average for each person
Gross domestic product (GDP) Measure of a nation’s income; value of all the goods and services a nation produces within their country
Life expectancy Average age a population lives to; mortality rate
Literacy % of population that can read and write competently
Infant mortality rate Number of infants who die for every thousand births
Human Development Index (HDI) Formula used to categorize the development level of nations (less developed, newly industrialized, and more developed)
Standard of living Quality of life based on some measure such as number of cars, accessibility of medical care, education, etc. .
Population Pyramids Graph showing % of males and females by age group for a population
Globalization Spreading of a phenomenon or culture traits worldwide
Trade networks Major patterns of exchange in specific regions
Chokepoint A narrow, strategically significant area where trade could be easily blocked or controlled
Pandemic World wide spread of disease over time
Sustainable development Using resources to meet present needs while protecting the resources and environment for the future
Renewable resources Resources which are replenished over time
Non-renewable resources Resources which can only be used once or are not easily replenished
Settlement Where people live
Urban City
Rural Country
Urbanization Mass movement of people from farms to cities; growth of city into surrounding countryside
Megalopolis Continuous urban region including several cities
Agriculture Farming
Deforestation The clearing of forest covering
Desertification The process of changing into desert, lack of rainfall causes desert conditions to expand/grow
Industrialization Development of a system which supports machine production of goods
Irrigation Man-made system to provide water to less arid areas
Created by: Crackalack